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I9II - 1912 













MAY 1912 

This country, which does not always err in vaunting its own productions.' 

HORACE WALPOLE'S Anecdotes of Painting in England. 




THE Walpole Society was founded in April, 1911, with the object 
of promoting the study of the history of British Art. 

For some reason not easily to be understood, the history of the 
Fine Arts in Great Britain and Ireland has attracted but a small 
number of students, even among our own countrymen. 

The consequence is that British Art, as a whole, does not occupy 
the place it deserves in general estimation, either here or abroad. Few 
realize how intimately our Art is bound up with our past history and 
with our national life and character ; even among ourselves we too 
often hear our national school of painting spoken of as if it were a 
sudden and unaccountable birth of the eighteenth century, remarkable 
only for the achievements of five or six men of genius. 

Practically nothing has yet been done to study the remains of 
British painting in the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth 
centuries from the artistic point of view, to trace out their aesthetic 
development, and to form trustworthy ideas about their relation to 
similar things abroad and their comparative merit. Their study, such 
as it has been, has moved almost exclusively on archaeological lines. 
The magnificence of our illuminated manuscripts has ensured them a 
certain amount of attention, but even in their case the lesson taught by 
the existence of such a fine body of artistic production in this country 
has not been appreciated. 

The English school of portrait painting in miniature requires 
much deeper and more documented study than has yet been spent 
upon it. 

Above all, perhaps, the painting of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries requires patient and widespread investigation. Painters 



have been numerous in the country ever since the time of Charles I, 
but little is known about them, and comparatively few are as yet 
represented in our public galleries by identified works. A few famous 
names have been allowed to monopolize attention, to the neglect of a 
very large number of excellent painters whose names are seldom heard. 

Increased interest has from various causes been lately aroused 
in the history of our national school. But the distressingly small 
number of students who have turned their attention to this subject 
are seriously hampered by the comparative isolation in which they 
work, and by the difficulty of bringing the results of their researches 
to the notice of the public and of each other. 

We hope that the Walpole Society will add rapidly to the number 
of students of all branches of our National Art, and thus wipe off the 
reproach under which we in this country at present lie. 

In presenting this first annual volume to our subscribers we may 
venture to point out that their number at present falls a little short of 
three hundred, and to express the hope that the appearance of the 
volume may attract a greatly increased measure of support to the 
Society. As practically the whole of the subscriptions are devoted 
to the production of our annual volume, it is evident that the size and 
scope of our future publications must depend upon the number of 
our subscribers. We wish to make these annual volumes a worthy 
monument to the artistic genius of our country, and we can only 
achieve that object if the number of our supporters becomes, such as 
to provide means of turning to full account the wealth of material 
which exists for reproduction and the zeal of students who are 
generously ready to contribute the results of their researches. 

$ resilient : 


(tfommittre : 



*BELL, C. F. 

CAW, J. L. 





*FINBERG, A. J., Hon. Secretary 

HIND, A. M. 
* HOLMES, C. J. 






OPE, A. P. 







Hon. Treasurer 



Members of the Executive Committee. 

All communications should be addressed to 

ALEXANDER J. FINBERG, Hon. Secretary, 

Arts Club, Dover Street, W. 

Subscriptions should be sent to 

C. MALLORD W. TURNER, Hon. Treasurer, 

22 Dawson Place, Bayswater, W 
















I. Portrait of Nicholas Hilliard, by Himself, in the Salting Bequest, 
Victoria and Albert Museum. Collotype, twice the dimen- 
sions of the original facing i 

II. Portrait of Richard Hilliard, Father of the Artist, in the Salting 
Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum. Collotype, twice the 
dimensions of the original facing 8 

III. Portrait of a Young Man leaning against a Tree, by Nicholas 

Hilliard, in the Salting Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum. 

(<?) Head, twice the dimensions of the original. 

(b) Full length, same size as original . . facing 42 

IV. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth, by Nicholas Hilliard, in the 

National Portrait Gallery. Collotype, twice the dimensions 

of the original ........ facing 52 

V. Wells Cathedral. Sculptures of West Front. 

(a) The Creation of Adam 

(b) The Garden of Eden facing 56 

VI. Wells Cathedral. Sculptures of West Front. 

(c) Adam and Eve. 

(d) Christ and the Doctors .... facing 57 

VII. (a) Bewcastle Cross. 

(b) Cross at Durham. 

(c) Cross at Romsey facing 58 

VIII. Chichester. The Raising of Lazarus .... facing 59 

IX. (a) Dinton, Buckinghamshire. Tympanum. 

(b) Barfreston, Kent. Tympanum .... facing 60 

X. (a) York. Statue of David. 

(b) York. Lower part of ' Hell Stone '. 

(c) Wells Cathedral. Statue by North Porch . . facing 61 

XI. (a) Westminster Chapel. The Annunciation. 

(b) Lincoln. Statue of Angel Choir. 

(c) Lincoln. 'Judgment Porch' facing 62 





facing 63 


(a) Lincoln. Angel Choir. Angels of Triforium. 

(b) Geddington Cross. Statues of Queen Eleanor. 

(c) Exeter. West Front. Warrior and King . 

XIII. (a) Sandwich, Kent. Knight. 

(b) York. Archbishop de Grey. 

(c) Westminster. Cast of bronze effigy of Queen Eleanor. 

(d) Westminster. Crook Back, Earl of Lancaster facing 

XIV. (a) Alabaster Knight and Lady. 

(b) Canterbury. Alabaster monument of Henry IV and 

Queen Joan. 

(c) Warwick. Bronze figure of Richard Beauchamp . 

between 64 and 65 
XV. (a) Beverley Minster. Percy Tomb. 

(b) Canterbury. Choir Screen. 

(c) Westminster. Henry VII Chapel. 

(d) Westminster. Henry VII Tomb . . between 64 and 65 

XVI. (a) Ewelme, Oxon. Alabaster tomb of Duchess of Norfolk. 

(b) Alabaster relief. Adoration of the Magi . between 64 and 6$ 

XVII. (a) March, Cambridgeshire. Oak roof with Apostles and 

( ) Cambridge. King's College Chapel. Heraldic sculpture 

between 64 and 65 

XVIII. (a) Lavenham. Misericord. Pelican with her young. 

(b} Oxford. The viva voce Examination of an Undergraduate. 

(c) Bench End. St. George and Dragon . betueen 64 and 65 

XIX. Feeding the Five Thousand. Panel of Retable, Westminster 
Abbey. Colour collotype. From a Water Colour copy 
made by E. W. Tristram .... facing 69 

XX. Head of St. Edward the Confessor. Part of the Sedilia, 
Westminster Abbe}'. Colour collotype. From a Water 
Colour copy made by E. W. Tristram . . facing 73 

XXI. Portrait of Commodore Keppel. By Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Photogravure, from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. Robinson, of Old Buckenham Hall, Norfolk facing 77 

XXII-XXXIX are collotype reproductions of Turner's 'Isle of Wight' 

Sketch-Book after 91 

XXII. (a) Fly-leaf, with notes of orders for drawings. 
(b) Page 2. Winchester City Mill. 

XXIII. Page 3. West Gate, Winchester. 




XXIV. (a) Page 4. Winchester Cross. 

(b) Page 10. The Bargate, Southampton. 

XXV. Page ii. Winchester Cathedral from the Avenue. 

XXVI. (a) Page 14 b. Salisbury, from Old Sarum Entrenchment. 
(b} Page 16. West Front, Salisbury Cathedral. 

XXVII. (a] Page 17. Part of Exterior, Salisbury Cathedral. 

(b) Page 1 8. Poultry Cross, Sarum. 

(c) Page 19. Close Gate, Sarum. 

(d) Page 21. Old Building, Salisbury. 

XXVIII. (a) Page 22. Netley Abbey, near Southampton. 
(b) Page 23. Another View of Netley Abbey. 

XXIX. (a) Page 25. Carisbrook Castle, with Newport Church in 

the distance. 
(b) Page 25 a. Gate of Carisbrook Castle. 

XXX. (a) Page 26. A Church, perhaps at Arreton. 
(b) Page 28. Chale Farm. 

XXXI. (a) Page 29. St. Lawrence, Orchard's Bay. 
(b) Page 30. Steephill Cove. 

XXXII. (a) Page 31. Mill Bay, near Ventnor. 
(b) Page 36. Appuldurcomb Park. 

XXXIII. (a) Page 37. Godshill Church. 
(b) Page 38. Mottestone Mill. 

XXXIV. Page 39. Freshwater Bay. 

XXXV. (a) Page 41. Alum Bay. 
(b) Page 43. Colwell Bay. 

XXXVI. Page 42. Totland Bay, with Alum Bay and the Needles 
in the distance. 

XXXVII. Page 44. Newport, with Carisbrook Castle in the distance. 

XXXVIII. (a) Page 47 a. Newport Church. 
(b) Page 48. Newport Church. 

XXXIX. Page 49. Nunwell and Brading from Bembridge Mill. 

collotypes and half-tone blocks are the work O/MR. DONALD MACBETH, 

The photogravure is by MR. EMERY WALKER. 

Plate I. 



By himself. 

Enlarged to twice the size of the original. 
(Salting Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum) 



THIS treatise on miniature painting, now printed for the first time from 
a manuscript in the Library at Edinburgh University by kind permission of the 
authorities there, is the earliest of a series of works on the same subject which 
so far have remained unpublished. The author was Nicholas Milliard, our 
first great English miniaturist, whose portraits had a marvellous reputation in 
his lifetime and among his immediate successors. His efforts as an author are 
less frequently mentioned, but imitation is the sincerest flattery. What he 
wrote on limning was well known to others who took up the subject and was 
utilized by them with and without acknowledgement. 

The treatise had been first inspired by Richard Haydocke, physician, of 
Winchester and New College, Oxford, who in 1598 published a translation 
of the Trattado dell' A tie della Pittura, Scultura ed Architettura, by Giovanni 
Paolo Lomazzo (Milan, 1584), which he called 'A Tracte, containing the Artes 
of curious Paintinge, Carvinge and Buildinge'. In his introductory remarks, 
headed 'The Translator to the Reader', Haydocke, after boldly comparing 
Hilliard as a painter with Raphael, proceeds thus : ' For, (to speake a truth) his 
perfection in ingenious illuminating or limning, the perfection of painting, is 
(if I can judge) so extraordinarie that when I devised with my selfe the best 
argument to set it forth, I found none better than to perswade him to doe it 
himselfe, to the view of all men by his pen ; as hee had before unto very many, 
by his learned pencell, which in the end he assented unto, and by mee 
promiseth you a treatise of his owne practise that way with all convenient 

The first portion of the volume now printed is alone claimed as altogether 
Hilliard's undoubted work, written in answer to this request by Haydocke. 
It occupies nearly thirty-one pages out of thirty-six, and is much more 
interesting though not more practically useful than the supplementary discourse 
which follows. Proof, however, will be forthcoming that the latter also was in 
part if not altogether by Hilliard. 

In order that there may be no misunderstanding it is perhaps right to 
mention at once two facts which, if other information were not available, would 
leave the authorship even of this first part an open question. The manuscript 
is not in Hilliard's handwriting, but in that of rather a careless scribe, and the 



title at the beginning assigning the work to him is not in the handwriting of this 
more or less contemporary copyist, but in that of the eighteenth-century 
engraver and antiquary George Vertue. 

Fortunately this rather inconclusive evidence as to the authorship is 
strengthened by a variety of facts which put the matter beyond question. 
Perhaps these facts can best be brought before the reader if we begin with 
a very brief epitome of the whole manuscript. 

The earlier portion is headed in Vertue's hand, 'A Treatise concerning 
the Arte of Limning, writ by N Hilliard', and for the sake of clearness, while 
discussing the subject, it will generally be called ' the treatise '. The author, 
after referring with approbation to Lomazzo and others who have written on 
painting, explains that he himself only tries to teach limning (or miniature). 
In his view none should meddle with the work but gentlemen, because of its 
cleanliness, that it can be left off and taken up again at any time without injury, 
and for other to him sufficient reasons. But the student must of course have 
diligence and aptitude. Without private means an English painter, however 
gifted, may be quite unable to support himself, as happened in the case of 
John Bossam, a man of rare talent, who through poverty was obliged to give 
up art and became 'a reading minister'. If he had not been English born he 
might have prospered. 

King Henry VIII is then mentioned, and his patronage of 'the most 
excellent painter and limner' Holbein, whose method of limning Hilliard has 
' ever imitated '. Albert Durer's exquisite work as painter and engraver is next 
referred to with some slight criticism, and his rules for students of the fine arts, 
'the best' that had appeared until the time of Lomazzo. This section ends 
with high praise of English beauty of form and feature, an advantage for 
our artists which in the author's opinion Durer did not possess. 

We now come to the practical question of how to attain skill in the art 
of miniature. It is clear that the author did not believe in violent exercise. 
According to him this should be avoided by the student, though he grudgingly 
allows a short time for bowls and dancing. He regards the portrait as 
something so precious that when in progress it should not even be breathed on 
in cold weather, nor touched with the fingers, and a silk dress should be worn 
as shedding little or no dust. A good north light is desirable, away from the 
' sulfurous ayr of seacole '. While the painter is at work ' musike ofendeth not ' 
nor discreet talk, but anger must be avoided and busybodies shut out. 

The most difficult thing to imitate in painting is the human face, the 
three points essential to a fine portrait being excellence of colour, proportion, 
and what the writer calls ' grace in countenance ', or expression. Various kinds 
of expression are noted, as those of love and joy, of wrath, fear, or sorrow. The 
features are separately discussed, and we are told that it is essential for the 


sitter to keep one position. If he moves much suddenly the artist remarks it, 
a slight movement more often leads to error. When the smallest deviation is 
.observed the sitter should at once be recalled to his place. It is essential to 
draw correctly the first line, namely that of the forehead, as a guide for 
reference. Albert Durer's rules as to the proportions of the features are given, 
one of them being that the forehead is of the length of the nose. Then follows 
an interesting piece of personal reminiscence. The writer mentions that though 
this rule in a general way holds good, yet Sir Christopher Hatton, sometime 
Lord Chancellor, who was one of the handsomest men in England, had a very 
low forehead, while on the contrary many faces of Durer's proportions were 
nevertheless ill favoured. 

The author next notes the changes at various times of life ; for instance, the 
proportions of a young child differ greatly from those of a man of ripe years, to 
whom Durer's rules would apply, and he again differs from those of advanced 
age. This train of thought leads him on to recall a conversation that he once 
had with Sir Philip Sidney, who asked him how he could express on a small 
scale the difference in figure between a tall man and a short one. He said that 
it was an easy matter and explains why. 

The question of shadows in painting tempts him to describe an important 
interview with Queen Elizabeth, when they discussed the kind of light most 
suitable for miniature portraits, and he laid it down as a rule that shadow was 
only useful for concealing defects in the sitter. On which the Queen, doubtless 
proud of her beauty, and urged thereto by his remarks, chose to sit for her 
portrait 'in the open alley of a goodly garden, where no tree was neare 
nor any shadowe '. 

Then follows advice with regard to the various colours which Milliard 
recommends and their mode of treatment. These are of the nature of recipes, 
and would be rather dry reading, but he enlivens them here and there by 
a personal touch. Thus he tells us that ultramarine from Venice was extremely 
dear. He himself had paid for it 35. 8d. per carat, which according to his 
reckoning is ,11 105. the ounce. In its place smalt appears to have been 
generally used. His method of drying white lead 'on a chalk stone with 
trenches cut in it' seems to have become afterwards a stock recipe, though 
not quoted word for word. Two or three of the colours he mentions are now 
partly forgotten. Scrusa or Ceruse was a kind of white lead. When calcined 
it produced Masticot, a yellow. Two pigments called Bice, blue and green, 
still known to artists' colourmen, are formed from native carbonates of copper. 

After a few remarks with regard to the preparation of the card, coated with 
fine vellum, on which the painting is to be executed, and the way in which it is 
to be begun, he recommends artists not to accept criticism from the ' baser sort ' 
of people, but 'to proceed in order and pity their ignorance'. Further advice 

13 2 


follows on the management of colours, the use of gold and silver, which should 
be burnished with a ferret's or weasel's tooth, and the mode of imitating pearls 
and diamonds. 

We now come upon a long dissertation which, although perhaps not 
affording much help to students of miniature painting, is of value, as it 
strengthens the claim, if this were needed, that Billiard was indeed the author 
of the manuscript. We know him to have been a skilled goldsmith, and here 
the chief colours are all likened to precious stones ; for instance, red to the rtiby, 
yellow to the oriental topaz, and green to the emerald. Many other stones 
are mentioned, and he dwells with much detail and enthusiasm on their fine 
qualities ; indeed here he seems to write more as a jeweller than a miniaturist. 
In a digression some results are given of his experience with regard to gem- 
cutters, and presumably craftsmen and artists in general. The best of them 
often remain poor, while a bungler with aptitude for business or self-advertise- 
ment may flourish. 

Near the end are a few notes that appear unfinished. The author concludes 
with advice as to the level and distance at which a sitter should be placed 
for his portrait. He should not be nearer than two yards, 1 but if a full-length 
portrait is to be undertaken he should be at least six yards off. When the 
hands happen to be in a good position, the best method is to draw them 
quickly, because if the sitter be asked to place the hands in a special manner 
he is apt to give them an air of ' affected grace '. The sitter is finally counselled 
to make up his mind at the beginning what pose he should adopt, to learn it 
as it were by heart, and to revert to it unconsciously if possible. 

Near the foot of the last page the copyist who wrote out the ' treatise ' 
has dated his ' transcript ' thus : ' the 18 of March 1624 Londres ', that is five 
years after the death of Milliard. The handwriting, the last line included, was 
examined by that great authority Sir George Warner, and he considered 1624 
to be the date of the whole. 

That the 'treatise' was originally composed by Milliard has perhaps been 
sufficiently proved. First, we have Haydocke's statement that he promised 
such a work. A perusal of it, with its queer spelling and picturesque but 
homely style, shows that it is written by a man more accustomed to handle 
the brush than the pen, while the personal reminiscences would some of them 
fit Milliard and no one else. At the very beginning is the allusion to Lomazzo 
whom Haydocke had translated, then come the praise of Holbein whom 
Milliard imitated, and the references to Sir Philip Sidney whom he knew, and 
to Sir Christopher Hatton whose portrait he painted more than once. Perhaps 

1 On folio 14 of the MS. at the British Museum, known as Harl. 6000, to which reference will 
presently be made, this rule is combined with the previous one that a sitter if he moves should at 
once be recalled to his place. 


most convincing of all is the account of his interview with Queen Elizabeth. 
That Hilliard painted her again and again ' in small compasse ' is well known, 
and his still existing miniatures of her have the diffused light they both 
admired, which gives them a flat shadowless appearance. He was her gold- 
smith and limner, 1 and his love of the former art is shown by the elaboration 
and skill in painting the jewels that adorned his sitters, about which he is 
almost apologetic, for he says that it is no part of limning but ' appertaineth 
to another art '. It is perhaps unnecessary to carry further the internal 
evidence of authorship, nor need we say more about the few unimportant 
borrowings from this particular treatise, which are to be found in other 
manuscripts, and consist of practical rules for the art, anecdotal passages being 
left untouched. 

Although it is evident that the existing transcript dates from the year 1624, 
this 'treatise' must have been composed by Hilliard in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, who was clearly still living when he describes their interview, the 
date of her death being March 24, 1602-3. The dedication to Thomas Bodley 
of Haydocke's translation of Lomazzo is dated August 24, 1598 ; we may there- 
fore conclude that Hilliard's work was written during the intervening period. 
Vertue indeed argues, in a note accompanying the 'treatise', that Haydocke's 
'Preface to the reader' which follows the dedication was written in 1590, 
because of a statement therein that ' Baptista Armenius Faventinus wrought 
Anno Dom 1587 which is three years since ', but this must be a slip of the pen, 
as at the top of the same page Haydocke says that Lomazzo's book, published 
as we know in 1584, 'hath continued these 13 yeares untranslated into other 
tongues '. 

The first portion of the manuscript having been dealt with, we now come 
to the much shorter concluding part, which in this volume begins page 45. 
It is written on the same paper, and on the second halves of the same sheets, 
but the formation of the letters is different, and no doubt it is by a later scribe. 
Sir George Warner has stated his opinion that it is a little earlier than the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

This second part is headed ' A more compendious discourse concerning y e 
art of Limning the nature and property of the colours ', and is without those 
individual touches that give such interest to the first part or ' treatise '. There is 
moreover no internal evidence of authorship in the form of anecdote or personal 
reminiscence. The ' discourse ', which in the remainder of this introduction 
will be so named, consists of a series of rules for the preparation and use of 
the colours, of the brushes, &c., and for the actual painting of the portrait. 

1 In gold lettering round the edge of a portrait of himself in the Minley Manor collection, 
referred to by Miss Helen Farquhar, are placed the words, ' Nicus Ilillyard aurifaber sculptor 
et ccelebris Illuminator serenissimae Reginae Elizabethse '. 


Somewhat similar ground is gone over to that already traversed in later 
portions of the ' treatise '. Once or twice there are strong resemblances ; for 
instance, in what is said about preparing the card for painting. Here we are 
told that it should be 'an ordinary playing card', such as Milliard sometimes 
used. H. Peacham describes the method of Hippolito Donato at Rome, which 
seems to have been almost identical. A few lines further on the advice as to 
not making the colour too brown is similar in each. Generally the later 
' discourse ' supplements the ' treatise '. 

The remarkable thing about our supplementary ' discourse ' is that, to the 
extent of something like three-quarters of the whole, its precepts and recipes 
appear again and again, almost invariably without acknowledgement, in 
a succession of seventeenth-century manuscripts on limning, and in more 
than one published book, the language being modified and varied as time 
went on. Most of the manuscripts, indeed all throwing light on the subject, 
were ably analysed by Mr. Martin Hardie in the second volume of Dr. G. C. 
Williamson's History of Miniature Portraits, 1904, and extracts from two were 
printed in the appendix. He had not however then seen the Edinburgh 
manuscript. We are rejoiced to hear that he is now engaged in editing the 
most important of them, namely that in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. It is 
entitled ' Miniatura or the Art of Limning, The Names Order and use of the 
Coulours both for Pictures by the Life Lanscape and History ', and will soon 
be issued from the Oxford University Press. He has been devoting attention 
to the subject for years, and no one is more competent to deal with it. Far 
from clashing, the two publications should supplement and aid each other ; we 
only want to get at the truth. 

Incidentally, perhaps, Mr. Martin Hardie, who since 1904 must have 
collected many further facts, will give his matured opinion about the whole 
group of later manuscripts. We should have left consideration of them entirely 
in his hands, but it seems necessary to consider the subject here from the point 
of view of how far the}' affect the status of this 'discourse' or last part of the 
Edinburgh volume. Setting aside a few pages on ' Lymninge ', which occur in 
the Stowe manuscript numbered 680 at the British Museum and have no 
connexion with the rest, and apart from the Edinburgh 'treatise' and 'dis- 
course ', there are at least nine manuscripts that deal with miniature painting, 
now in the British Museum, the Bodleian Library, at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and at the rooms of the Royal Society, and certainly one more is 
known to exist. They almost invariably repeat each other a great deal, and for 
the most part bear evidence of being later than the period which concerns us. 
For our purpose only two require serious consideration. 

The earlier of these two is that at the British Museum, known as Harl. 
6000. Its title runs as follows (without author's name): 'An exact and 


Compendious Discours concerning the Art of Miniatura or Limning the names 
Nature and properties of the Coullours, the orders to be observed in pre- 
paring and using them both for Picture by the Life Landscape and Historyes.' 
As may be remarked, the first part of this title agrees with that of the Edin- 
burgh ' discourse '. The added word ' Miniatura ' and the rest of the title 
resemble that of the Bodleian manuscript which we shall presently consider. 
In fact the Edinburgh volume has no sections dealing with limned paintings 
or illuminations of landscape and ' history ', or with other subjects such as 
the making of crayons, which occupy much space in this and the Bodleian 
manuscript. With some extensions and in slightly varied form most of the rules 
for painting miniature portraits contained in the ' discourse ' are repeated in 
Harl. 6000 ; but the latter has large additions on technical matters and, besides 
this, personal allusions and reminiscences quite distinct from those in the 
Edinburgh ' treatise ', and evidently relating to another person. 

One of these allusions is of great value in view of the fact that in the 
opinion of Mr. J. A. Herbert of the British Museum the lettering of the manu- 
script, which is excellent, might quite well belong to the first quarter of the 
seventeenth century. On folio 10 we are told that ' Paolo Brill ', that is Paul 
Bril the landscape painter, ' is still living in Rome ', and it is known that he 
died in 1626. In another passage (folio 8) mention is made of ' my most noble 
Lord the Earle of Arundell Earle Martiall of England', which can only apply 
to Thomas Howard, second Earl, who had that office conferred on him in 
1621 and died in 1646. If this reference and that to Bril are accurate the 
treatise must have been compiled between 1621 and 1626, but as news from 
the Continent then travelled slowly it might be a little later. Elsewhere the 
writer speaks of an interview he had with the painter and engraver Hendrik 
Goltzius, who died in 1617. A fourth allusion is to the writer's still living 
'cosson' or 'cousinell' Peter Oliver, son of the famous Isaac Oliver who had 
been a pupil of Hilliard. Isaac is also called cousin, and part of a Latin 
epitaph on him is given. The writer has visited the Vatican and other famous 
places in Italy, and quotes Latin and Italian. He speaks of Rubens and his 
' affected collourings ', but does not appear to know him personally. 

We should add that gummed on to a modern fly-leaf of Harl. 6000 is an 
old piece of paper, part of a former fly-leaf, which has on it in eighteenth- 
century handwriting, perhaps Vertue's, the words ' Of Limning by Hilliard '. 
The latter statement may be more recent than the former. Below in different 
ink is the date 1695. This however is of no importance, each assertion being 
evidently a surmise. 

The fact that, although a few sentences from the 'treatise' and large 
portions of the ' discourse ' are incorporated in Harl. 6000, the latter was not 
compiled by Hilliard, is proved by several acknowledgements of indebtedness 


to him for information. As an instance, the employment of the 'juice of 
garlicke' before laying on liquid silver, to which no reference occurs in the 
Edinburgh volume, was, we are told, a 'secret I had from Mr. Billiard'. In 
the ' discourse ' there are no such acknowledgements, which naturally would 
be out of place if Hilliard were the author of it. 

The later of the two manuscripts which chiefly concern us is that in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, marked there as Tanner 326; for convenience we 
will call it ' the Bodleian Miniatura '. This, we have said on a previous pa"ge, 
is the work which Mr. Martin Hardie is now engaged on. The author is held 
by him, and in the Dictionary of National Biography, to be Edward Norgate, 
and, with the evidence now before us, there can be no reasonable doubt that 
this attribution is the right one, although some might be inclined to substitute 
for the word author that of compiler. 

At the beginning he says that more than twenty years before, Sir Theodore 
Mayerne (the distinguished physician) had asked him to compose a treatise 
on painting, and he continues thus : ' To gratify soe good a friend soe 
ingenious a gentleman I wrote such observations as from the best masters and 
examples here and beyond the mountaines I had learned and for my recreation 
practised, as my better imployment gave me leave. Finding myself at leasure 
more than enough I have revised that dead couloured description and added 
to it both in weight and fashion.' 

The probable date of this manuscript is important, and although none 
appears on it, this can be fixed with a good deal of accuracy. It is dedicated 
' to the Right Honourable my Singular good Lord Henry Howard Earle of 
Arundell and Surrey', no other than Henry Frederick, third Earl, who 
succeeded to the title in 1646. The dedication is signed E. N. ; if by Edward 
Norgate it must have been written before the end of 1650,' but another 
reference narrows the limit. In Harl. 6000 the writer's ' cosson ' or ' cousinell ' 
Peter Oliver, son of Isaac, is clearly still living. In the Bodleian Miniatura 
we are told that he had used a certain colour ' to his dying day ', but he lived 
until 1648, so the manuscript must have been composed in the course of the 
next two years. The form of the letters also belongs to about the middle of 
the seventeenth century. The writing is excellent. Comparison, however, 
with known examples of his penmanship shows that it was not by the actual 
hand of Norgate, although the manner of expression is undoubtedly his. 

1 In his edition of Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, 1826-8, vol. ii, p. 43, the Rev. James 
Dallaway says that this manuscript has on the title Norgate's name in full and the date July 8, 
1654, and that before his death he had ceased to be Windsor Herald. In fact, however, he 
retained the office till his death at Heralds' College, which event took place in December, 1650, 
for on the 23rd of that month he was buried at the adjoining church of St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, 
as appears in the register. There is no date or name of Norgate in full on the manuscript. Henry 
Frederick, Earl of Arundel, to whom it is dedicated, died in 1652. 

Plate II. 


Father of the Artist, dated 1577. 

Enlarged to twice the size of the original 

(Salting Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum) 


When comparing the Bodleian Miniatnra with Harl. 6000 and the 
Edinburgh manuscript, we find that the first named contains in varied form 
almost everything in Harl. 6000, including, with one or two exceptions, the 
large number of rules for limning which also occur in the Edinburgh volume. 
But there is plenty of new material, and where a statement has become obsolete 
it is modified. The writer is practised in heraldry and limning, he has travelled 
more, his references to works by great artists are extended, and he uses 
French and Dutch words in addition to Italian and Latin. He now praises 
Rubens (whose personal acquaintance he has evidently made and who has 
passed away), mentioning that he had been 'knighted by the best oi Kings 
and Men '. We are told that some of his pictures ' were lately at York 
Howse but now unhappily transplanted'. This refers doubtless to the thirteen 
Rubens paintings in the collection of George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, 
acquired in 1627 with many other splendid works of art from Rubens's own 
collection, and scattered by the Commonwealth in 1645. These allusions are 
perhaps enough for our purpose, if we add a few notes about Norgatc gleaned 
from other sources, to show how well-known events of his life accord with the 
evidence of the manuscripts. 

This accomplished man was in his younger days a protege of Thomas, 
second Earl of Arundel, our first great connoisseur. He taught the Earl's 
sons, Henry Frederick and William, the art of heraldic painting, was sent by 
him to Italy to buy pictures, and, Oct. 28, 1633, was appointed Windsor 
Herald, having probably been for a short time Blue-mantle. His artistic know- 
ledge was utilized on behalf of Queen Henrietta Maria and other great people, 
and he thus visited the Continent on various occasions, even making his way 
as far as the Levant. There is record of an interview with Rubens at the house 
of the latter in Brussels. Norgate became Clerk of the Signet to Charles I, 
and Illuminator of Royal Patents, in which capacity we are told that his work 
showed exquisite taste and finish. All these facts help to confirm our belief 
in his authorship of Harl. 6000 and the Bodleian Miniatnra. The only 
stumbling-block is that Isaac and Peter Oliver are claimed therein as cousins, 
and Norgate is not known to have been related to them. This question of 
cousinship has given rise to the ingenious idea that the writer of Harl. 6000 
was John De Critz, serjeant-painter, because an Isaac Olivier of Rouen, who 
may possibly have been the great limner, married a lady in 1602 who may have 
been related to De Critz. If, however, Harl. 6000 was by De Critz the 
Bodleian Miniatura was also by him, and the evidence now available points in 
an overwhelming manner to Norgate. 

Accepting this, our real concern is to unravel the tangled skein involving 
the Edinburgh volume, Harl. 6000, and the Bodleian Miniatura, and to trace, it 
possible, the authorship of the second part of the Edinburgh ' discourse ', with 



regard to which we have reserved one piece of evidence until now. There 
is a passage in the ' discourse ' which occurs almost word for word in Harl. 6000, 
although cut down in the Bodleian Miniatura to a very small compass. It 
begins 'Cheristone and Ivory are both to be burned and so ground', and it 
will be found on p. 32 of our publication. At the end of this passage as 
given in the Harleian manuscript is the following statement : ' This was the 
manner of our late excellent M r Nicholas Hilliard in making his Sattens.' 
The ' discourse ' is written in similar style throughout, the passage referred to 
is unquestionably his, and if part why not the whole? It is likely enough that 
he was not responsible for its precise form. What seems more probable is 
that after his death it was put together by a personal friend, perhaps by his son 
who was a limner, from information furnished by him, as a series of notes for 
those interested in limning, and that years afterwards it was copied into this 
volume by way of supplement to the ' treatise '. 

Harl. 6000 represents Norgate's first attempt at a description of the 
processes of painting, and, although not by his hand, it must have been quite 
an early transcript. His reference to this first attempt is quoted by us from 
the Bodleian Miniatura on p. 8. It can hardly be one of the 'imperfect' 
copies of which, in his dedication of that manuscript to Lord Arundel, he 
complains as having appeared under another's name without his consent or 
knowledge, for it has no name attached to it. 

Norgate's final and finished production, the Bodleian Miniatura, is an 
excellent piece of work. Fuller, in his Worthies of England, may with reason 
call him 'a right honest man', and we need not impute unworthy motives 
because in what he implies to have been a compilation, intended of course to 
be as useful as he could make it for reference, he annexed anything that 
seemed of value without troubling himself often to record the precise sources 
of his knowledge. In referring to the ' best masters ' to whom he was indebted 
for information, he indicates these generally, and he several times mentions 
Hilliard as having practised certain methods. He also praises him as an 
excellent person, ' in his time a great Master of the Arte '. To do more would 
have been thought superfluous if the rules laid down in the Edinburgh ' treatise ' 
and ' discourse ' were looked upon as stock methods for workers. Thus the 
careful housewife, who lights upon a good recipe, ' when found makes a note ' 
of it, only now and then jotting down the name of its first composer. 

The phraseology of the 'discourse' like that of the 'treatise' is old- 
fashioned, the sentences unlearnedly arranged. The part of it appearing in 
Harl. 6000 is generally expanded and made less rugged ; the reverse process 
seems improbable. Finally Norgate put together what may be called a new 
edition of his earlier work, which itself in passages not relating to limning 
was independent of Hilliard. Still embodying a few rules from the 'treatise' 


and large portions of the ' discourse ', he omitted what was out of date, and 
placed his material in ordered sequence. He improved the diction and added 
many fresh facts; the whole, apart from the interest of its personal allusions, 
being a valuable record ot the methods of miniature portrait painting and ot 
much else relating to art in the middle of the seventeenth century. But while 
according him due praise for his achievement we must not forget that Nicholas 
Milliard, both as English limner and as writer on limning, was the pioneer. 

Before quitting altogether the subject of the seventeenth-century manu- 
scripts on limning, it will perhaps be right to say a few words about one or two 
of those, not yet referred to by name, which are clearly founded on Norgate, and 
through him partly on Milliard. In Dr. Williamson's History of Miniature 
Portraits Mr. Martin Hardie has already criticized the manuscript at the British 
Museum dedicated by Daniel King to Mary, daughter of Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
who in 1657 became Duchess of Buckingham, and he points out that it is 
a copy of Norgate, earlier and more imperfect than the Bodleian Miniatura. 
In fact, where that manuscript differs from Harl. 6000, King agrees with the 
latter; lor instance, he gives the statement that Bril was then living, afterwards 
altered by Norgate. Of course King could not possibly have been the author, 
and he clearly attempted to deceive, for in his halting dedication he speaks of 
the manuscript as a collection of secrets in the art of miniature that in all his 
' travels ' he ' could learn or observe for love or money '. It was at one time 
lent to Walpole. 

Other manuscripts in the British Museum are based on the earlier Norgate 
treatise, usually with added notes on various subjects. Add. MS. 23080 seems 
to be for the most part an imperfect transcript of Harl. 6000. It also belonged 
to Vertue and afterwards to Walpole, and the former has filled in some omitted 
passages. The first portion is dated 1664. A later manuscript, now in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, also follows the Harl. 6000 model. On the other 
hand, the transcript belonging to the Royal Society, with date 1657, repeats the 
Bodleian Miniatura. The fly-leaf has the words ' By E Norgate ', in contem- 
porary handwriting. 

There are various seventeenth-century printed books on limning. H. 
Peacham's Art of drawing with the pen and limming in water colours, although 
commending Hilliard, seems independent of him. It first appeared in 1606, 
and in 1622 was incorporated in the same author's Complcat Gentleman, which 
ran through several editions, being republished after the Restoration ; a reprint 
of it appeared in 1906. Peacham's recipes and those of Hilliard had evidently 
been studied by the man who wrote Polygrapktce, 1672, ostensibly the work of 
William Salmon, M.D., who at the end advertised his own pills. Much of the 
second part of W. Sanderson's Graphice, 1658, is a bad copy of what relates to 
limning in Harl. 6000. This was repeated to some extent by Alexander Browne, 

c 2 


who in his A rs Pretoria, second edition, 1675, remarks that he has taken observa- 
tions 'out of a manuscript of Mr. Hilliard's touching Miniture'. In short, as 
a general rule, each writer, whether his work was intended for publication 
or not, helped himself freely to whatever he thought useful ; they all, moreover, 
unite in praising Hilliard or saying that they owe to him the knowledge of some 

The dates and origin of the ' treatise ' and ' discourse ', that is, of the first 
and second parts of the Edinburgh manuscript, and their connexion with 
other manuscripts of a similar kind having been considered, let us now devote 
a few words to the later history of the volume. It is well known that George 
Vertue collected a great mass of material, now among Add. MSS. in the British 
Museum, for a history of painters and painting, but he died in 1757 without 
carrying out his plan. In the following year Walpole bought the collection 
from Vertue's widow, and it became the basis of the Anecdotes of Painting, 
to which he added embellishments and reminiscences of his own. Among the 
manuscripts was that consisting of the 'treatise' and 'discourse' which we are 
now publishing. From the former, Walpole, in his notice of Hilliard, quotes 
the sentence beginning ' Holbein's manner I have ever imitated ' and also the 
account of Bossam. 

It has been said in our note on p. 8 that in 1826-8 the Rev. James 
Dallaway brought out an annotated edition of the A necdotes (re-issued after his 
death). He makes various allusions to the manuscript we are publishing, then 
at Strawberry Hill. In remarks attached to one of Walpole's quotations, vol. i, 
p. 286, he confuses it with Harl. 6000; elsewhere, vol. i, p. 144, when quoting 
from the latter treatise which he mentions as being at the British Museum, he 
expresses the belief that it was from Hilliard's notes, and in another passage 
at p. 293 that it was compiled some years after Hilliard's death, partly from his 
notes and partly from conversations with him. Dallaway also quotes from the 
Bodleian Miniatura, in his note to vol. ii, p. 43, but does not observe its resem- 
blance to Harl. 6000, nor to our manuscript, which evidently he had not seen. 
His error with regard to the date of the Oxford manuscript has already been 
mentioned in our note on p. 8. Nevertheless Dallaway's edition has consider- 
able merit. 

To resume our account of the Edinburgh manuscript in comparatively 
recent years. It remained at Strawberry Hill until the Walpole collection 
was dispersed by auction in 1842, being No. 122 on p. 83 of the sale 
catalogue brought out by the well-known auctioneer George Robins. The small 
folio volume, with a plain binding of some age but little interest, contains 
Walpole's armorial bookplate and the names of Patrick Eraser Tytler and 
David Laing, to whom successively it belonged. In 1863, when in the possession 
of the last-named gentleman, he lent it to that distinguished man Sir George 


Scharf, virtual founder of the National Portrait Gallery, who with infinite pains 
traced the parts of it that interested him, and had his tracing transcribed. 
The original MS. was bequeathed to Edinburgh University by Mr. Laing, 
and transmitted to the Library by his executors in 1879. After Scharf's death 
the tracing and transcript were kindly given to the present writer, who also 
soon afterwards acquired by purchase a complete transcript. From this he 
quoted in a paper on Hoefnagel, read before the Society of Antiquaries in 1901. 
Attention was thus drawn to the existence of the manuscript, which for years 
had escaped the notice of most people interested in the history of miniatures. 
In 1905 he lent the transcript to his friend the late Sir Richard Holmes, who 
quoted rather freely from it in his article on Billiard which appeared in the 
Burlington Magazine, vol. viii. The passages then given are however in 
amount trifling compared with the whole, and as the manuscript is rather 
difficult to read and the transcript had not been collated they contain many 
errors. Miss Helen Farquhar also borrowed and utilized the transcript for her 
excellent articles on Nicholas Hilliard, 'Embosser of Medals of Gold', Numis- 
matic Chronicle, 4th Series, vol. viii, 1908, and on the ' Portraiture of our Tudor 
Monarchs on their Coins and Medals', British Numismatic Journal, vol. iv, 
issued in the same year. In her former paper she gives a few notes on 
the group of seventeenth-century manuscripts. Miss Farquhar's chief work, 
however, and that a very useful one, is to trace, as far as may be, the artistic 
productions of Nicholas Hilliard other than his limnings. Incidentally she 
points out certain facts with regard to the man himself. 

He was the son of Richard Hilliard, High Sheriff of Exeter in 1560, and 
of Laurence, daughter of John Wall, goldsmith, of London, with whom he may 
have studied the goldsmith's art. The date of his birth is not fixed with 
certainty. There is a miniature in the Buccleuch collection which, according to 
the inscription, represents him at the age of thirteen. It is apparently self-painted, 
and if so must be his earliest known work. By the head are the initials N4 
and the figures 1550. The inscription on another miniature of him at Montagu 
House, painted in the year 1574, also makes the year of his birth 1537. On 
the other hand, the inscription on the Salting miniature of him, A. D. 1577, 
also self-painted, implies that he was born in 1547, and from the companion 
portrait of his father the latter would appear to have been born in 1519. If the 
inscription on the father's portrait is correct, we have some difficulty in believing 
that Nicholas was born in 1537, though marriages were early in those days. 
We can, however, be quite sure that he did not paint his own portrait at the 
tender age of three. The miniatures themselves and the lettering of all look 
equally genuine. There is a mistake somewhere ; the date of his birth seems 
to be now generally accepted as 1537. 

From documents in the Augmentation Office and among the State Papers 
it is proved that Hilliard both designed and engraved the second Great Seal of 


Queen Elizabeth, the order for which was made July 15, 1584. Again, in the 
time of James I, Dec. 26, 1604, there was a 'warrant to pay to Nich. Hilliard 
64' io s for 12 gold medals'. Miss Farquhar gives the evidence about the 
wonderful Armada Jewel now belonging to Mr. Pierpont Morgan, and points 
out what else he may have done as medallist, goldsmith, and jeweller. He may 
even have practised the art of cutting precious stones ; that he had expert 
knowledge of it is shown by our ' treatise '. In the Pierpont Morgan collection 
of Hilliard miniatures there are several interesting ones of noble French ladies, 
and in Dr. Williamson's catalogue reasons are given for believing not only that 
these were painted by Hilliard but that he worked at the French Court. 
Unquestionably there was an English painter employed by the Due d'Alencon, 
and called in his accounts Nicholas Belliart. 

We have finished the main subject of our introduction, and a biography 
of Hilliard would here be superfluous. Little is really known of his private 
life, and that little has already been set forth in various modern publications 
to which access can easily be obtained. We will therefore merely add some 
half-dozen leading facts. In the Calendar of State Papers, Dom. Sen, 1610, 
we are told that 'Nicholas Hilliard Painter to the King' had suffered from 
serious illness, ' but resolved before he died to recommend the suit of William 
Goldsmith labourer, who has discovered a new mode of repairing highways at 
half the usual cost.' In 1617 a special licence was granted to him for twelve 
years to paint and engrave portraits of the King and the Royal Family. In 
this document he is called 'our well beloved servant Nicholas Hilliard Gentle- 
man our principal Drawer for the small portraits and Imbosser of our Medallies 
of Gold '. He had married Alicia Brandon, who was a daughter of John 
Brandon, Chamberlain of the City of London ; a miniature painting of her is at 
Montagu House. From an inscription on it we learn that she was his first 
wife. To judge from their portraits they must have been a remarkably good- 
looking pair. Of his second wife, who probably predeceased him, we know 
nothing. He died Jan. 7, 1619, and was buried at the church of St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields, having been a resident in that parish. His will is known ; after 
legacies to the poor, to his two sisters, and his servant, he left the residue of 
his property to his only son, Laurence, to whom King James had already, 
in 1607, granted the office of ' Limner in reversion after Nicholas Hillyard 
his father '. 

Our thanks are due to Mr. J. A. Herbert ol the British Museum for his 
great skill and care in correcting the proof of the manuscript, and to Mr. Lionel 
Cust for kindly help. It may perhaps be right to add that the very casual use 
of capital letters, the punctuation, and the arrangement of paragraphs in the 
original have been altered, as it was felt that these changes would make the 
document more readable. On the other hand the spelling, which has a distinct 
individuality of its own, has been carefully retained. 



writ by N. BILLIARD 

at the request of R. Haydocke who publisht in English a translation oi 
Paulo Lomazzo on Painting 1598.' 

[Or precepts & directions for y e ]" arte of paintinge I will saye 
littel, insomuch as Paulo Lomatzo [& others hath excellently & 
learnedly spojken therof, as is well knouen to the learned & better 
sorte [who are conversant with those ajuthors ; but only intending to 
teache the arte of limning, and the [true method leading thjervnto, as 
also to shewe who are fittest to be practisers [thereof, for whom only] 
let it suffice that I intend my whole discourse that way. 

[Amongst y e antjient Romans in time past forbad that any should 
[shoud (sic] be taught the arjte of painting saue gentelmen only. I coniec- 
ture they did it [upon judgment of th]is ground, as thinking that noe man 
vsing the same to get his liuing [by, if he was a needy] artificer, could 
haue the patience or leasure to performe any [exact true & rare] peece 
of worke, but men ingeniously borne, and of sufficient means [not subject 
to] se (those ?) comon cares of the world for food and garment, moued 
with [emulation a]nd desier therof, would doe theier vtermost best, not 
respecting the [profitt o]r the lenght of time, nor permit any vnworthy 
vnworthy (sic) worke to be pubblished vnder their name to comon view, 
but deface it againe rather and neuer leaue till some excelent pece of 
arte were by him or them performed worthy of some comendations, by 
reason wherof it was no wonder that the most excelent nation and the 
greatest witts of the world then brought forth the most rare workes in 
painting that euer weare ; it must needs be granted then for euer, and like 
as one good workman then mad another, so one bocher nowe-adaies 

1 This title, on a fly-leaf facing the first page of the MS., is in the handwriting of George 
Vertue, F.S.A., the engraver (d. 1756). 

' The words enclosed in square brackets on this page are in Vertue's hand, and are on 
a slip of paper inserted to make good a mutilation of the first leaf. 


maketh many, and they increasse so fast that good workmen giue over 
to vsse their best skill, for all m(en) cary one price. 

Now therfor I wish it weare so that none should medle with 
limning but gentelmen alone, for that it is a kind of gentill painting of 
lesse subiection then any other ; for one may leaue when hee will, his 
coullers nor his work taketh any harme by it. Morouer it is secreet, a 
man may vsse it and scarsly be perseaued of his owne folke ; it is sweet 
and cleanly to vsse, and it is a thing apart from all other painting or 
drawing, and tendeth not to comon mens vsse, either for furnishing of 
howsses or any patternes for tapistries, or building, or any other worke 
whatsoeuer, and yet it excelleth all other painting whatsoeuer in 
sondry points, in giuing the true lustur to pearle and precious stone, 
and worketh the metals gold or siluer with themselfes, which so 
enricheth and innobleth the worke that it seemeth to be the thinge it- 
se[l]fe, euen the worke of God and not of man, benning fittest for the 
decking of princes bookes or to put in jeuuells of gould and for the 
imitation] of the purest flowers and most beautifull creaturs in the finest 
and purest coullers which are chargable, and is for the seruice of noble 
persons very meet in small voloms in priuat maner for theem to haue 
the portraits and pictures of themselues, (fo. i b) their peers, or any other 

forraine 1 

them, and this is a worke which of 

owne pressence for the most part of the . . 

uenient that they be gentelmen of g 

of abbillity or mad by princes fee abl 

to giue such seemly attendance one Pr . 

Royall presence Seest thou not that th 

in theire bussines stand before Prince 

mon peeople, But God the aughter of wisdo ... 

all good guifts and goodnes, he giueth gsentilit 

rayseth man to reputation by diuers mean ... . . 

he called Basaleel and Ahohas by name and 

wissdome, skill, and vnderstanding, without any te 

of his owne guift and grace receued 

1 MS. mutilated : see above, p. 15, note 2. 


himself to be cuninge in all fine & curious w . 

silke in painting, in setting' of precious stones in gould .... 

the text sayeth, He filled them with the sperit of God to 

such works being men before brought vp but in st . 

of brickes in captiuitye, they and their ancestors for .... 


Heer is a kind of true gentility when God caleth, and doubtles 
though gentelmen be the metest for this gentill caling or practize, yet 
not all, but naturall aptnes is to be chossen and prefered, for not euery 
gentelman is so gentel sperited as som others are. Let vs therfore honore 
and prefferre the election of God in all vocations and degrees ; and suerly 
he is a very wisse man that can find out the naturall inclination of his 
childeren in due time, and soe applie him that waye which nature most 
inclineth him, if it be good or may be made good, as it may be vssed, 
though in childhood abussed ; and as for an naturall aptnes of or to 
painting after the liffe, thosse surly which haue such a guift of God ought 
to reioyce with humble thankfulnes, and to be very wary and temperat 
in diet and other government, least it be sonc taken from them againe 
by some sudaine mischance, or by their euell coustomes their sight or 
stedines of hand decay. 

Then this exortation giue I more that he be diligent, yea euer 
diligent, and put his whole vttermost and best endeauors to exceell all 
other, for a stronge man that putteth not forth his strenght is often 
foyled by weaker, and the most perfect and cuningest must doe the 
same diligence, or rather more, to effect and performe his worke then 
hee did at the first in larninge. For it cannot be sayd that a man, be 
he neuer so cunning by teaching or naturall inclination, yet it will 
growe out of him as haire out of the head, or fall from him, whether 
he will or no, but with great labour, and this comfort shall he haue 
then aboue others, euen an heauen of joy in his hart to behould his 
own well doings remaining to his credit for euer. Yea if men of worth 
did knowe what delight it (fo. 2) breedeth, how it remoueth mallan- 
coly, auodeth euell occasions, putteth passions of sorrowe or greefe 
awaye, cureth rage, and shortneth the times, they would neuer leaue 
till they had attained in some good meassur a more then comfort. 



Maie he haue both praysse and euen honor in the sight of men liuing 
and fame for euer after, and princes comonly giue them competent 
meanes, by which not the workmen soe much as themselues ar eternized, 
and famously remembred as the nuresses of vertue and arts. Wherfore 
it is truly written Honos alit artes, and many noble and honorable 
perssons haue bine practizers themselues of the art of painting, as 
Lomatius very learnedly and truly hath in order repeated ; and 'some 
haue counted themselues the greater therby, as the famous and vic- 
torious Roman Quintus Fabius added it as an honnore vnto his tytle 
to be called Quintus Fabius Pictor, and Pamitius, recokoning (sic) vp the 
famous barons and worthy perssons which weear attendant on the 
emperour Marcus Aurelius, remembreth and shortly amonge them this 
principal painter. 

Neuertheles, if a man be so indued by nature and Hue in time of 
trouble, and vnder a sauage gouerment wherin arts be not esteemed, 
and himselfe but of small meanes, woe be vnto him as vnto an 
vntimly birth ; for of mine owne knowlege it hath mad poure men 
poorer, as among others many, the most rare Englishe drawer of 
story works in black and white, John Bossam, for one of his skill 
worthy to haue bene Sergant Painter to any King or Emperour, whose 
work in that kind are comperable with the best whatsoeuer in cloathe 
in distemper cullors for whit and black ; whoe being very poore, and 
belyke wanting to buy faier cullors, wrought therfore for the most part 
in whit and black, and growing yet poorer by charge of childeren &c. 
gaue painting cleane ouer, but being a very faier conditioned zealious 
and godly persson grewe into a loue of God's deuine seruice vpon 
the liberty of the gosspell at the coming in of Quene Elizabeth, and 
became a reading minister, only unfortunat becasse he was English 
borne, for euen the strangers would otherwisse haue set him vpp. 

Heer must I needs incert a word or two in honore and praisse of 
the renowned and mighty King Henry the eight, a prince of exquisit 
jugment and royall bounty, soe that of cuning stranger euen the 
best resorted vnto him and remoued from other courts to his, amongst 
whom came the most excelent painter and limner Haunce Holbean, the 
greatest master truly in both thosse arts after the liffe that euer was, 


so cuning in both together, and the neatest ; and the[re]withall a good 
inuentor, soe compleat for all three as I neuer heard of any better 
then hee. Yet had the King in wages for limning diuers others ; but 
Holbeans maner of limning I haue euer imitated and howld it for the 
best, by reason that of truth all the rare siences, especially the arts of 
earning, painting, gouldsmiths, imbroderers, together with the most 
of all the liberall siences, came first vnto vs from the strangers, and 
generally they are the best and most in number. I hard Kimsard (for 
Ronsard ?) the great French poet on a time say that the Hands indeed 
seldome bring forth any cunning man, but when they doe it is in high per- 
fection ; so then I (fo. 20) hope I hope (sic) there maie come out of this ower 
land such a one, this being the greatest and most famous Hand of Europe. 

The most excelent Albert Dure was borne in Germany, a part of Albert 
the greatest mayneland in Europe, which breedeth or might breed 
more then a hundred workmen for vs one, this Albert being as exquisite 
and perfect and perfect (sic) a painter and master in the art of grauing on 
copper as euer was since the world begane (that by many works exstant 
appeareth), and which also hath written the best and most rulles of and 
for painting and grauing hetherunto of any maister untill Paulo Lamatio, 
which rulles of Albert for the most part ar hard to be remembred, and 
tedious to be foloued of painters, being so ful of diuisons, but very 
fittable for earners and masons, for architects and fortifications, and all 
[to] which drawing is the enterance, the very high waye and foundation. 
He dowtlesse had opinion that not in hast or short time his better 
should arisse, wherfor, as it hath bene vnto me credabelly reported, he 
resserued some plats of his owne grauing for printing, which he gaue 
vnto the city of Norenbourgh, wherof he was a worthy counselor, which he 
kept for a time, r[e]quiring of them by his will and testament that thosse 
plats should not be printed vntill one hundred yeares after his [death] 
weare fully expired and past, that he might then arisse againe after a 
houndred years to his greater fame, if in the meane time he wear not excelled 
by any other ; which plats ar yet reserued vnprinted to his great credit, 
and which in due time to his greater fame will doubtles be deuolged. 

Yet hath ther beene diuers excelent persons of that nation and of 
Italy, France, and the Lowe Countries also, wherof Hendrick Goltzius 

D 2 


aproched Albertus very neer, most admirably imitating him and Lucas 
of Leyden also in their seuerall handling" the grauer, which he hath 
done in sertaine peces to showe what he could doe it he list, but he 
afecteth another maner of line, which is swifter acording to his spirit, 
and doubtles very excelent, and most folowed ; that man is worthy to 
be remembred in bouck to posterity, which excelleth all men in that 
age in that matter wherof he is professor. Albertus Dure was t>oth 
inuentor and grauer, as few of the rest of the grauers are, a double 
honnor to him. 

Nowe the reasson why the rules of Alberte serue mor the caruer 
then the painter is becausse he discribeth and deuideth the propeor- 
tion or of parts of men, like as of pillors or such other things, by 
measures of inches in lenght, breadth, thiknes, and circumference. Which 
measures serue not nor can howld in painting, for as Lamatzo truly 
speaketh, in the eleuenth chapter of Opticio, you cannot measure any 
part of your pictures by his true superficious, because painting perspec- 
tiue and forshortning (fo. 3) of lines, with due shadoing acording to the 
rule of the eye, by falshood to expressc truth in very cunning of line, 
and true obseruation of shadoing, especially in human shapes, as the 
figure lieth, boweth or standeth, and is situated, or is, and aptly shal- 
be placed to deceaue the eye. For perspectiue, to define it brefly, is an 
art taken from or by the efect or jugment of the eye, for a man to 
express anything in short'ned lines and shadowes, to deseaue bothe the 
vnderstanding and the eye. This cassed the famous and eloquent Cissero 
to say, O how many things doe painters see in highning or lightning 
and shadowing which we deserne not. 

And heer I enter myne opinion conserning the question whether of 
the two arts is the most worthy, painting or carueing : I say, if they be tow 
arts, painting is the worthier, as in the last leafe I hope I shall proue sufi- 
ciently. Againe I will doe cuning Albert no wronge, but right ; dowbtles 
he was the most exquisite man that euer leaft vs lines to vieue for true 
delination, the most perfect shadower that euer graued in metall for 
true shadowes, and one of the best and truest in his perspectiue, but yet 
it must be thought, or rather heeld for sertaine, by reason that he was no 
great traueller, that he neuer sawe thosse faier creatures that the Italions 


had scene, as Rousso, Raphel, and Lambertus Svvanius &c, for besides 
a certaine true proportion, some of thirs doe exell his in kind of beauti- 
fulnes and sperit in the linament and jesture with delicacye of feature 
and limes, hands and feet surpassing all other portractures of the Duch 
whatsoeuer, yea euen nature itself, except in very few, which rare 
beautys are (euen as the diamons are found amongst the sauage 
Indians) more commonly found in this yle of England then elsewhere, England 
such surely as art euer must giue place vnto. I saye not for the face beautifuii 
only, but euery part, for euen the hand and fooet excelleth all pictures cratl 
that yet I euer sawe. This moued a sertaine Pope to say that England 
was rightly called Anglia, of Angely, as the country of Angels, God grant it. 

And now to the matter for precepts, for obseruations ore directions 
to the art of limning which you requier, as breefly and ar (sic) plainly 
as I can, concerning the best waye and meanes to practice and ataine 
to skill in limning: in a word befor I exhorted such to temperance, 
I meane sleepe not much, wacth not much,eat not much, sit not long, 
vsse not violent excersize in sports, nor earnest for your recreation, 
but dancing or bowling, or littel of either. 

Them (5/6-) the fierst and cheefest precepts which I giue is clean- 
lynes, and therfor fittest for gentelmen, that the praticer of limning be 
presizly pure and klenly in all his doings, as in grinding his coulers 
in place wher ther is neither dust nor smoake, the watter wel chossen 
or distilled most pure, as the watter distilled frome the watter of some 
clear spring, or frome black cherize, which is the cleanest (fo. 30) that 
euer I could find, and keepeth longest sweet and cleare, the goume to 
be goume aarabeeke of the whitest and briclest 1 , broken into whit 
pouder one a faire and cleare grinding stone, and whit suger candy 
in like sort to be keept dry in boxes of iuory, the grinding-stone of 
fine cristall, serpentine, jasper or hard porfory ; at the least let your 
aparell be silke, such as sheadeth lest dust dust (sic) or haires, weare 
nothing straight, beware you tuch not your worke with your fingers, 
or any hard thing, but with a cleane pencel brush it, or with a whit 
feather, neither breath one it, especially in could weather, take heed of 
the dandrawe of the head sheading from the haire, and of speaking 

1 i. e. most brittle : see J. A. H. Murray, New English Dictionary, s.v. Brickie. 


ouer your worke for sparkling, for the least sparkling of spettel will 
neuer be holpen if it light in the face or any part of the naked. 

Rule 2'.* The second Rulle is much like the first, and conserning the light 

and place wher you worke in. Let your light be no[r]thword somwhat 
toward the east, which comonly is without sune shininge in ; on[e] only 
light, great and faire let it be, and without impeachment or reflections of 
walls or trees, a free sky light, the dieper the window and farer the b'etter, 
and no by-window, but a cleare story in a place wher neither dust, 
smoak, noisse nor steanche may ofend. A good painter hath tender 
sences, quiet and apt, and the culers themsellues may not endure some 
ayers, especially in the sulfirous ayre of seacole and the guilding of gowld- 
smithes ; sweet odors comforteth the braine and openeth the vnderstand- 
ing, augmenting the delight in limning. Discret talke or reading, quiet 
merth or musike ofendeth not, but shortneth the time and quickneth 
the sperit, both in the drawer and he which is drawne ; also in any wisse 
auoyd anger, shut out questioners or busi fingers. All theesse things may 
be hadd, and this authority may best be vssed, by gentelmen ; therfor 
in truth the art fitteth for them. 

ofPainting Now knowe that all painting imitateth nature or the life in euery- 
thinge, it resembleth so fare forth as the painters memory or skill can 
serue him to expresse, in all or any maner of story worke, embleme, 
empresse, or other deuice whatsoeuer ; but of all things the perfection is 
to imitate the face of mankind, or the hardest part of it, and which carieth 
most prayesse and comendations, and which indeed one should not 
atempt vntill he weare metly good in story worke, soe neare and so weel 
after the life as that not only the party in all liknes for fauor and com- 
plection is or may be very well resembled, but euen his best graces and 
countenance notabelly expressed, for ther is no person but hath variety of 
looks and countenance, as well ilbecoming as pleassing or delighting. 

Wherof it is not amis to say somewhat in briffe tuching this point, 
leauing the better handling therof to better wits, wherin the best shall 
find infinite arguments, right pleasant (fo. 4) to discour[s]e vppon ; and 
herof it cometh that men commonly say of some drawer, he maketh 

* The marginalia thus marked are in Vertue's or another comparatively modern hand ; 
the rest are in the same hand as the text. 


very like, but better yet for them then the party is indeed ; and of some 
other they also say, he maketh very faier, but worsse fauored. In the 
comlynes and beauty of the face, therfor, which giueth vs such pleasinge, 
and feedeth soe wonderful ower afection mor then all the worlds 
treassure, it consisteth in three points : the first and least is the faire and i 
beautiful couler or complection, which euen afare of[f] as neare is 
pleassing greatly all behoulders ; the next and greater part is the good 2 
proportion somtime called fauore, wherof ouer deuine part vppon nearer 
vi[e]w, by an admirable instint of nature, jugeth generally, both in wisse 
and foolish, yong or owld, learned and simpel, and knoweth by nature, 
without rule or reasson for it, whoe is well proportioned or well 
fauored, etc. ; but the third part & greatest of all is the grace in coun- 3 
tenance, by which the afections apeare, which can neither be weel vssed 
nor well juged of but of the wisser sort, and this principall part of the 
beauty a good painter hath skill of and should diligently noet, wherof 
it behoueth that he be in hart wisse as it will hardly faill that he shal 
be amorous (and therfore fittest for gentelmen). 

For whoe seeth an exelent precious stone, or diserneth an exelent 
peece of musike with skill indeede, and is not moued aboue others with 
an amorous joye and contentment then the vulger (howbeit gent[el] or 
vulgar wee are all generally commanded to turne awaye ouer eyes frome 
beauty of humayne shape, least it inflame the mind) ? Howe then the 
curious drawer wach, and as it [were] catch thesse louely graces, wittye 
smilings, and thesse stolne glances which sudainely like lighting passe 
and another countenance taketh place, except hee behould, and very 
well noate and conceit to lyke ? Soe that he can hardly take them truly, 
and expresse, them well without an affectionate good jugment and with- 
out blasting his younge and simpel hart, although (in pleassing admira- 
tion) he be very serious bussied. So hard a matter he hath in hand 
calling thesse graces one by one to theire due places, notinge howe in 
smilling howe the eye changeth and narroweth, houlding the sight yust 
between the lides as a center, howe the mouth a littel extendeth both 
ends of the line vpwards, the cheekes rayse themselues to the eye- 
wards, the nosterels play and are more open, the vaines in the tempel 
appearc more and the cullour by degrees increaseth, the necke com- 


monly erecteth itselfe, the eyebrowes make the straighter arches, and 
the forhead casteth itselfe into a plaine as it wear for peace and loue to 
walke vppon. 

In like sort countenances of wroth, of feare, or of sorowe, haue their 
seuerall alterance of the face, and fare according to the mind is affected, 
may be many faces, some louly, some loathsom, some graue and wisse, 
some foolish and wanton, some proude and audatious, some poore and 
couardly ; wherfor it would be longe to handel eury seuerall countenance, 
I leaue it therfore, althoug I could. But tuching or \_for a ?] pleassing 
comly grace I haue sayd somwhat, becausse a sad and heauy countenance 
(fo. 4 b) in picture is sine of some eiuel. I leaue all the rest to the drawer 
to noet by the same example; and let him read Lamatzo his second 
bouc kof actions and jeastures, wher he shall find good obseruations. 

Wisdome comphrehendeth all things, it entereth into all arts, it 
goeth through them, and considereth of them, it turneth back againe 
and deuideth them, it placeth them in order and obserueth their 
seuerall graces. So chiefly the drawer should obserue the eys in his 
pictures, making them so like one to another as nature doeth, giuing 
life to his worke, for the eye is the life of the picture ; and be sure like- 
wisse that the sircel of the sight be perfect round (for so much therof 
as appeareth), the senter truly placed in the midest therof; the reflection 
of the light, which apeareth like a whit spek, must be placed according 
to the light. This seemeth but a slight thing, howbeit the most fayleth 
therm ; and noet this, as the position is or the drawer placed acording 

Position to art, the furthest eye from the drawer must be a littel hig[h]er then 
the hethermost, becausse of the perspectiue, if the drawer sit any deall 
hig[h]er then the party drawne ; but if lower, then the further eye must be 
a littel lower ; if leauel, then to be of one hight. So shall the worke by 

life fauor weel placing and trure (sic) doing of the eye haue great life ; for of all 
the features in the face of a picture the eye showeth most life, the nosse 
the most fauor, and the mouth the most liknes, although liknes is 
contained in euery part, euen in eury feature, and in the cheekes, 
chinne, and forhead, with the compasse of the face, but yet cheefly in 
the mouth ; wherfor, as I haue formerly sayd that the goodnes or ilnes 
of the liuing face consisteth in three things, 


1 / Complection 

2 -{ Proportion '- being the fauore, 

3 ( Countenance 

so remember the goodnes of a picture after the liffc standcth cheefly also 
vppon three points 

i ( Liffe ) Eye 

2 \ Fauor ! ' Nose 

which chiefly consist in 

i thesse three features 
3 i Liknes j Mouth. 

Fauor and liknes are both one in some sence, as one would say of a 
picture after the liffe that it hath the very fauore of the party or the 
very liknes of the party, both is one thinge ; but when one sayeth 
it is a wel fauored picture, and a well like picture, theese differ; so 
meane I that the nosse giueth cheefe fauor, for one shall neuer see an 
ill fauored face that hath a weel proportioned nosse. 

I find also that many drawers after the life, for want of true ruell or 
jugment, oftentimes fayles more in true proportion theen they that with- 
out patterne drawe out of thier owne head, euen through the ill setting 
of the party drawne, which is also (fo. 5) the drauers fault that marketh 
not when the party remoueth, though it be neuer so littele. For if he one 
a sudaine remoue a great dealle then you marke it easely, and recall 
him to his first lyne, but the littele mouing leadeth you to a great 
error if you perceiue it not quickly, soe that they somtime make the 
eyes at one position or standing, the nosse at ane other, the mouth at an 
other, the eare at an other. 

I amonish you of that fault, both sitter and drawer, which is the 
greatest cause of leesinge the liknes in pictures. Marke weel, 1 saye Obserua- 
therfore, when your worke is remoued neuer so littel recall him to his 
right waye or place, or proceed not; and to preuent this error your 
marke shalbe your first line which you drawe, but that must be most 
truly drawne, for that lyne must be a scalle to all the rest ; and let that 
your first lyne be the forehead stroake, as for exampel.f Soe then you 
shall proceed by that scalle or scantlinge to doe all proportionablye to 
that bignes, as if the forehead be but so longe, then the rest of that 
lyne to the chine is but twice so long, as thus,:j: and so proceed still, 
weel marking when you loosse that line, that is to say, when that lyne is 


not to you, to your seeing, as when you first sawe it and drue it, for 
then your mark is remembred, which you shall best knowe and per- 
ceiue by the distance betweene the eye and that lyne, which also you 
must mark howe it was when you drwee that lyne, howe neare it or 
howe fare. 

Albert Dure giueth this rulle, that comonly all faces howld one 
measure and true proportion (how differing soeuer they be of fauor) : 
that the forhead is of the lenght of the nose, and the nose as long as 
frome the nose to the chinne ; if it differ in this it is deformety (by this 
rule). Howebeit I haue knowne to howld in right good fauors in some 
feewe, but if I should for example name any, it must be such an on as 
most neuer kneue, or else it cannot well be graunted ; therfore I wilbe 

SirChr: bould to remember me of one, namly S r . C. H., sometimes Lorde 
Chancellor of England, a man generally knowne and respected of all 
men amongst the best fauours, and to be one of the goodlyest per- 
sonages of England, yet had he a very low forhead, not answerable to 
that good proportion of a third part of his face ; and one the contrary 
part, infinit number of face there are which howld that proportion 
which Albert Duer commendeth, and yet ar but il fauored or 
vnpleasant faces to behowld (so God in nature hath for diference 
ordained it), but very rarly doth nature or hardly can art make a good 
fauor that shall not howld that true porportion. Wherfor he was a rare 
man, and had as rare fortune which differed therin, for if any of the 
three it may (fo. 5 b) differ without disgrace to fauore, the forhead maye 

Propor- differ rather in lenght and may be the longst, and hinder no fauour, 
which comonly if [/or is ?] scene in the most wisse and noble minded 
one, and ancient folke, wher the forhead euer waxeth higher and higher, 
and also doeth the nose (to keepe euen with it) growe a litel longher, 
or at the least decline at the toppe, but the lower part shortneth. 

All men see a maruelious change in the face of mankind frome a 
child to an owld mane, but fewe can tell howe in parts it is wrought so 
to change by the efect of time. First therfore you shall vnderstand that 
a child of three years owld hath an eye as bige as a man, at the least 
the sircle of the sight if not the ball, the nose of no lenght answer- 
able either to the forhead or distance from the nose downewards. 


Ergo Alberts porprotion (sic) howldeth not in childeren (wherof I knowe 
he was not ignorant) ; neither howldeth it in owld folke, for the forhead 
waxeth higher, the nose longer, and so consequently the mouthe and 
chine, somtime for want of teethe, shorter, as in men shauen most easaly 
is deserned, more then in other becausse of theire beards. Then Albert 
meant that such proprotion (sic) howldeth but at rippe years, as frome 
fourteene to forty or fiuty, or therabouts. 

I would willingly giue many obseruations tuching proportion fit 
to be knowne, but the bouck is great already, wherfor I omit them 
porposly, yet one wourd more in remembrance of an excelent man, Sir P 
namly S r . Philip Sidny, that noble and most valiant knight, that great Sldne y * 
scoller and excelent poet, great loner of all vertu and cuninge : he 
once demanded of me the question, whether it weare possible in one 
scantling, as in the lenght of six inches of a littel or short man, and also 
of a mighty bige and taulle man in the same scantling, and that one 
might weel and apparently see which was the taule man, and which 
the littel, the picture being just of one lenght. I showed him that it was 
easely decerned if it weare cuningly drawne with true obseruations, for 
ower eye is cuninge, and is learned without rulle by long vsse, as littel lads 
speake their vulger tonge without gramour rulls. But I gaue him rules 
and suficient reasons to noet and obserue, as that the littel man[s head is] 
comonly as great as the tawle man[s], then of nececity the rest of the 
body must be the lesse in that same scantling, a littel man comonly 
hath also comonly short legs and thieghes in comparison to his bulke 
of body or head, but though the head be as great as the (fo. 6) tall mans, 
yet shall his forme and face and countena[n]ce be fare otherwise, easey 
enough to diserne. The talle man hath comonly low showlders, long 
shankes, thiegs, armes, hands, and feet, wherwith ouer eye is so comonly 
aquainted thatwithout rule to vs knowne it knoweth it straight, but 
if an ile painter come which will make a childs head as littel for his 
body as a tall mans (a childe is but fower times the lenght of his face, 
and a man tene tymes and more), or his eye as littel for his face as a 
mans, or his nose as great, I will not take vpon me to knowe his 
tall man from a dwarfe. There is notwithstandinge much faire worke 
wherin such grosse error is, and much disproportion and false per- 

E 2 


spectiue, but [by] neatnes and well coulloring the worke oft times soe 
graceth the matter that common eys neuer note it, but men do beleeue 
it to be exquesit and perfect becausse of the neatnes. But knowe it 
you for a truth that the cheefest mastery and skill consisteth in the 
true proportion and line, and a tall mans picture exactly drawne but 
in the lenght of sixe inches shall shewe to be a taller mans picture 
then a littel mans picture drawne at the lenght of fowre and tv/enty 
inches, or in his owne full height, if his true shape be obserued, and so of 
horsses and other beasts and cattell the like. Lamatzo confirmeth this 
by naming some man to be sixe heads, some of tenne, some of twelue ; 
other authors the like. 

Forget not therfore that the principal parte of painting or drawing 
after the life consiste[t]h in the truth of the lyne, as one sayeth in a 

Q. Eliza- place that he hath scene the picture of her Majestic in fower lynes 
very like, meaning by fower lynes but the playne lynes, as he might as 
well haue sayd in one lyne, but best in plaine lines without shadowing, 
for the lyne without shadowe showeth all to a good jugment, but the 
shadowe without lyne showeth nothing. As for exampel though the 
shadowe of a man against a whit wall showeth like a man, yet is it not 
the shadowe but the lyne of the shadowe which is so true that it 
resembleth excelently well. As drawe but that lyne about the shadowe 
with a coall, and when the shadowe is gone it will resembel better then 
before, and may, if it be a faire face, haue sweet countenance euen in 
the lyne, for the line only giueth the countenance, but both lyne and 
coulor giueth the liuely liknes, and shadows showe the roundnes and 
the effect or defect of the light wherin the picture was drawne. 

This makes me to remember the wourds also (fo. 6 b) and reasoning 

Q. Eliza- of her Majestic when first I came in her Highnes presence to drawe, whoe 
after showing me howe shee notied great difference of shadowing in the 
works and diuersity of drawers of sundry nations, and that the Italians, 
[who] had the name to be cunningest and to drawe best, shadowed not, 
requiring of me the reason of it, seeing that best to showe onesselfe nedeth 
no shadow of place but rather the oppen light ; to which I graunted, [and] 
afirmed that shadowes in pictures weare indeed caused by the shadow of 
the place or coming in of the light as only one waye into the place at 


some small or high windowe, which many workmen couet to worke in for 
ease to their sight, and to giue vnto them a grosser lyne and a more 
aparant lyne to be deserned, and maketh the worke imborse well, and 
shewe very wel afar of, which to liming work nedeth not, because it is 
to be weewed of nesesity in hand neare vnto the eye. Heer her Majestic 
conseued the reason, and therfor chosse her place to sit in for that 
porposse in the open ally of a goodly garden, where no tree was neere, 
nor anye shadowe at all, saue that as the heauen is lighter then the earthe 
soe must that littel shadowe that was from the earthe. This her 
Majestie[s] curiouse d[e]maund hath greatly bettered my jugment, besids 
diuers other like questions in art by her most excelent Majestic, which 
to speake or writ of weare fitter for some better clarke. 

This matter only of the light let me perfect, that noe wisse man Light 
longer remaine in error of praysing much shadowes in pictures after 
the life, especially small pictures which ar to be wiued in hand : great 
pictures placed high ore farr of requier hard shadowes or become the 
better then nearer in story worke better then pictures of the life, for 
beauty and good fauor is like cleare truth, which is not shamed with 
the light, nor neede to bee obscured, so a picture a littel shadowed 
maye be bourne withall for the rounding of it, but so greatly smutted 
or darkned as some vsse disgrace it, and is like truth ill towld. If a very 
weel fauored woman stan[d] in place wher is great shadowe, yet showeth 
shee louly, not because of the shadow, but becausse of her sweet fauor 
consisting in the lyne or proportion, euen that littel which the light 
scarsly sheweth greatly pleaseth, mouing the desier to see more, ergo 
more would see more ; but if she be not very fay re together with her 
good proportion, (fo. 7) as if to palle, too red, or frekled etc., then shadowe 
to shewe her in doeth her a fauore. Wherfore I conclud great shadowe is 
a good signe in a pictur after the life of an ill cause, and sheweth plainly 
that either the drawer had no good sight to diserne his shadowes except 
they weare grosse, or had a bad light to drawe in, to high or to lowe, or 
to littel, or else the party drawne needeth and choose thosse shadowes 
for the causes aboue sayd, or it was perhaps for some speciall deuice 
or affection of the stander to be drawne in so standing. 

Knowe this also, that to shadowe sweetly (as wee weell calle it) and 


round well, is a fare greater cuning then shadowing hard or dark, for to 
round a worke well canot be without some shadowe, but so to shadowe 
as if it weare not at all shadowed is best shadowed, for a round ball is 
a round ball in the oppen light, where the light cometh euery way, as 
weel as in a seller, wher it cometh in at a littel gratt. But euerything in 
his true kind is to be allowed of, as is required of necesity in the story 
or deuice, that is wher the matter consisteth more in a strange light- then 
in the liknes of the party so drawne, as if one must be drawne or painted 
blowing the coalle in the darke to light a candel, wee must then shadowe 
accordingly, making no light but that which comes from the coale vntill 
the candel be lighted, so when the action in the story or the deuice in the 
picture requireth it, them (sic) I highly comend it, and discomend theire 
obsurdyty which omit it. As if one should make the troupe of Judas going 
to seeke Christ in the garden by night with torches and lanthornes or 
any fier works, or asaultinge a city by night and should make a cleare 
sky and faire day both one them and all the landship, weare it neuer so 
well painted it weare not to the purposse or matter, but rediccalious and 
false ; for ther the matter consisteth consisteth (sic) chifly one the trayter- 
ous act done by night and such prouision as they had for light, more then 
in any liknes of the lyfe in any of theire pictures : wherfor hee gaue then 
a signe, saying ' Whome I kisse, that is he ', least they should not see if hee 
had but pointed at him, or discribed him. Paulo Lamatzo maintaineth 
mine oppinion, more then any other that euer I hard, in his bouck, saing 
' What is shadowe but the defect of light ? ' 

Couiiers Nowe a word or toe (fo.jb) of coullors, for which as \forar ?] fit for 

limning, and which ar not. All ill smelling coullers, all ill tasting, as 
orpament, verdigres, verditer, pinck, lapgrene, litmousy, or any vnsweet 
coulers ar naught for limning, vsse none of them if you may chusse. If 
masticot, ceder grene, galleston, powncky greene, Indy blewe and vlter- 
marine may be gotten, theese and most other cullers ought to be grinded 
(except the litmouse or pansy greene, which is a sape greene), but wash 
it first, the finest frome the coursest drosse, and then softly grind it 
againe, weel cleansing your stone to euery seuerall collore. 

Nowe to speake of the number of cullers. Some authors sayeth, ther 
are but toe cullers, which are black and whit, because indeed in whit and 


black all things are or maye be in a maner very well discribed, as 
apeareth in the well grauen portaiture of Albert Dure, Hendriik 
Goltzius and others, and indeed all painting is performed by ligh[t]ning 
and shadowing, which may be termed whit and black, for light and 
darknes, in what coullor soeuer it be ; therfor first I will speake of whit 
and black : whether th[e]y be the only coullours, or no coullers at all (as 
many others say), for my part I thinke them worthiest to be first placed 
being the most vssed. 

Of whits, whitlead the best pict out and grinded, and dried on a Whits 
chalke stone in trenches made in the stone for that purpose, and after- 
wards grinded againe, after a dayes grinding with gume arabeck, and 
wash it, it becometh a good whit for limning; and by the washing to 
sorts ar mad, Iter (sic) serusa, which is made fine, vssed in the same sort, 
and in the making you shall make three sorts therof : the first and finest, i 
which will glisten, I call sattin whit; the next in finnes is good for 2 
linning etc. ; the last and coursest, being once againe grinded, is best to 2 (sic) 
be vssed for the flesh couller, properly called cornations, which in no sort 
ought to haue any glistning. That with a very littel red lead only aded 
maketh the fairest carnations ; if the party be a littel paller, lesse read 
lead and a littel masticot amonge ; if yet browner, more of each and a 
littel oker de Ruse withall. Other whits may be made of diuers things, 
as of the bones of a lambe and of yong burnt, also of some (fo. 8) sheels, 
as ege shells and oyster sheels, but thosse whits are to be vssed for other 
porposses fitter then for limning. Ther is also an excelent whit to be 
made of quicksiluer, which draweth a very fine lyne; this whit the 
women painters vsse. Noet also the sattine seruce, grinded with oyle of 
whit popy, whitneth vpp pearles in oyle coullors most excelently, and it 
serueth not as the linseed oyle doeth, but it is long in dryinge ; this is an 
experience of mine owne finding out. 

The best blacke is veluet blacke, which is iuory burnt in a crucible Biackes 
and luted that ayre enter not, mix therfor your Jutting with a littel salt 
and let it nealle redd hot a quarter of an hower, then lett it coole and 
grind it with gume watter only, and washe it in this maner : power 
watter to it by littel and littel, still stirringe it, and when it is as thine as 
inke or thinner let yt settele a wholle afternoone and poure from it the 


vppermost, which is but the gume and fowlnes, good to put amonge 
inke. The rest let drye, and keepe it in a paper or boxe and vsse it as 
aforsaid with soft grinding it againe, or tempering, but one the grind- 
ing stone with watter adding gume in powder to it againe at discretion, 
for you shall by vssing it perceive if it haue too littel gume, for then it 
worketh ill and dryeth to fast ; if you put too much gume, then it wil- 
be somewhat bright lyke oyle callor, which is uyled : in lymning. 'Take 
this for a generall rule, that lymning must excell all painting in that 
point, in that it must giue eury thing his proper lustre, as weel as his true 
cullor, light, and shadowe. Other blackes are made in lyke maner, as of 
chery stones, date stones, peach stones, and common charkecole, willowe- 
colle, or anythinge that burneth burneth (sic) blacke : these burnt and 
grinded as aforsaid, but they need no washinge. 

His own Noate also that veluet blacke, after it is drye in the shell, it worketh 

neuer more soe weell as at the first grinding or tempering ; wherfore for 
principall workes, and euen for the centor of the eye, being but a littel 
tytle, I vse alwayes to temper a lyttle one my grinding stone ; hauing it 
alwayes in powder ready grinded, washt, and dryed for store. Soe vse I to 
haue most of my other cullers, that I may easely temper then (sic) with 
my finger in a shell, adding gume at discretion ; soe haue I them alwayes 
cleane and fayer and easyer to worke. Thus a limner should doe, but for 
sparing time and cost (fo. 8 b) some vsse to worke out of theire ould 
shells of cullors, thoughe they be naught and dusty. 

Now besides whittes and blacks, there are but fiue other principall 
cullors which are cullors of perfection in themselues, not participatinge 
with any other, nor can be made of any other mixed cullors ; and of them 
fiue are neuerthelesse dyuers kinds, so as with them are made by mixture 
murrey, redd, blewe, greene and yellow. 

Murreys First, murreye for limning must be a lake of himselfe of a murrey 

cullore, which kind of lake is best made at Venice and neatly good in 
Antwerpen. If you be driuen of other lake, with adding a littel blewe to it, 
to make your morrey, it can neuer be so good. This lake is to be grinded 
but with gume arrabecke watter only, although when it is ouer drye in 
the shell yt hardly relenteth to worke weel againe, then grind more. 

1 i.e. vile, see J. O. Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaisms, s.v. vild. 


Redd for limning : the best is lake of India, which breaketh of a Redds 
scarlet or staniel cullor. Dyuers othe[r] lakes ther are, some which will ' 
shadowe one vppon another, they are so blacke, and all thosse blacke 
lacks generally must be grinded with some suger candye amonge the 
gume and some altogether with suger ; they cannot be to much grinded, 
nor need any washinge ; longe standinge open in the sunne marreth your 
lakes and allmost all collors, so ouerbaking them, hardninge or drying 
them that they will neuer worke well. Vermelion is another redd, and 
is to be grinded and washt ; redd lead to be but washt only, the finest 
of it to limninge, twoo sorts of it. 

For limninge the darkest and highest blewe is vltermaryne of Biewes 


Venice. Of the best I haue payed iij s viij d a carret, which is but fower ' 
graines, xj n x s the ounce ; and the worst, which is is (sic) but badd, will 
cost ij s vj d the carret, vij rt x s the ounce, insteed wherof wee vse smalt of 
the best, blewe byces of diuers sorts, some paler then other, some of 
seauen or sixe degrees one aboue another. Theise may be grinded, but 
better broken lyke ammel in a stone morter of flint excelent smouthe 
with a pestel of flint o[r] aggat, well stirred till it be fine, with gumc 
watter only, and washed; soe haue you many sorts, and all good. 
Shadowinge blews are litmouse and Indy blewe, and flory ; theese need 
no washing, nor litmouse any grinding, but steeped in lee of sope ashes, 
vse gume at discretion as aforsaid. 

Greene : the best for limning is ceder greene, insteed wherof wee Greens 
take verditer. Pinke is also a nedfull greene in (fo. 9) lantscippe.and mixed A 
with byce ashes makes another faire deepe greene ; so likwise your pincke 
mixed with masticot and serusa as you see cause for light greens. Alle 
theese neede washing and not grinding, and all common greens, as com- 
mon sapgreene, flower de luce greene, or pauncy greene, neede neither 
grinding nor washing, but steepinge in watter, or in lee which is better. 

Yeallowe : the best are masticotts, wherof there are d[i]uers sorts, Yeaiiowes 
some paller then some, yeallowe oker for want of better is one also ; and ' 
these washt and not grinded doe best, and must haue a littel suger 
amonge the gume in tempering them. Shadowing yeallowes are the 
stones found in the oxe gall, grinded with gume watter and not washt, 
and yeallows made of whit roses brused with a littel allumm and 



strayned, and neither grinded nor washt, nor nedeth gume. One maye 
shifte with faire oker cle Rouse and safaran watter for want of the 
other ; first shadowe vppon masticote with yealowe oker, and with oker 
de Rouse. For shadowinge cullors which are browne or blackishe or 
heire cullor, which are as necesary as any other cullors, you haue earth 
of Cullen, vmber, spalte, and oker Rouse, and soote may also be vssed in 
story worke ; gume watter vse only vnto these. 

A word, I praye you, tuchinge the making of those beautifull 
rubies or other stones, how you soe arteficially doe them, that being 
neuer so littel they seme precious stones, naturall, cleere and per- 
spicious : soe that (by your fauor) is no parte of limming, wherfore 
requier it not. It appertaineth merly to ane other arte ; and though 
I vse it in my limming, it is but as a mayson or joyner, when he 
hath done his worke, and cane also paynt or guilde his freeses and 
needfull parts therof. Now that you haue true waye for orderinge 
your coullors, vnderstand that in drawing after the life you must not 
change your light, but end your worke in the same light you begone 
in, if you posibley maye. 

Parchment Knowe also that parchment is the only good and best thinge to 
limme one, but it must be virgine parchment, such as neuer bore haire, 
but younge things found in the dames bellye; some calle it vellym, 
some abertiue (deriued frome the word abhortiue for vntimly birthe). It 
must be most finly drest, as smothe as any sattine, and pasted with 
starch well strained one pastbourd well burnished, that it maye be pure 
without speckes or staynes, very smoothe and white. 

Carnations Then must you laye your carnation flowing and not thine driuen as 
ane oyle cullore ; and when you begine your picture choose your carna- 
tions too fayre, for in working you maye make (fo. 9 b) it as browne as you 
will, but being chosen to browne you shall neuer worke it fayer enough, 
for limming is but a shadowing of the same cullor your grownd is of, 
and soe generally all ground cullor in limming must be layd flowing; not 
toe full flowing neither, for cockling your carde etc., but somewhat 
flowing, that it dry not befor your pensill vntill you haue done, least 
it seeme patched and roughe. Also when you drawe vppon the said 
complection a carnation ground culler, be verye well aduised what 


lines you drawe, and drawc them very lightly with some of the same 
carnation and a littel lake amonge, very thinly mixtwrcd, or with thine 
lake alone, with a very smalle pensile, that it scarce at first maye be 
discerned, till you be sure you bee in the right waye, for afterwards 
ther is no alteration when the lyne is apparant, or very hardly. Ther- 
fore in your shadowing vsse also the same discretion to shadowe, but 
by littel and littel at the first, for littel, not regarding what the ignorant 
say, which wilbe alwayes teaching. For there be faults which must be 
done of porposse, being faults which may be amended, for feare you 
comit faults which cannot be amended ; for the face made neuer so 
littel to redd or to browne in limning is neuer to be amended ; the 
face to leane, the forehead to lowe, or haire to darke, is not or very 
hardly to be amended, but the botching or mending wilbe per- 
ceiued wher one hath taken away any caler one the face, for the 
carnation will neuer be of the same cullor againe, nor will joyne so 
smoothe wher any other cullor hath bene layde. Make the forheade 
to highe at the first, therforc, to be sure you maye mend it, and be 
not hastye to lessen it at euery mans worde, but proceede with jugment. 

I haue euer noted that the better and wiser sort will haue a great 
patience, and marke the proceedinges of the workman, and neuer find Criticisms 
fault till albe fynished. If they find a fault, they doe but saye, I thinkc sitters* 
it is to much thus or thus, referring it to better jugment, but the 
ignoranter and basser sort will not only be bould precisly to say, but 
vemently sweare that it is thus or soc, and sweare so contrarely 
that this volume would not containe the rediculious absurd speeches 
which I haue hard vppon such occasions. Theis teachers and bould 
speakers are commonly seruants of rude vnderstandinge, which partly 
would flater and partly shewe but howe bowld they may be to speake 
thire opinions. My counsel is that a mane should not be moued to 
anger for the matter, but proceede with his worke in order, and pittie 
thyer ignorance (fo. 10), being sure they will neuer robe men of their 
cuning, but of their workc peraduenture if they can, for commonly 
wher the wittc is small the conscience is lesse. 

When your cullors are drye in the shell you are to temper them 
with your ringe finger very cleane when you will vsse therof, adding 

F 2 


a littel gume if it temper not well and flowingly, but beware of to 
much ; if any cullor crack to much in the shell, temper therwith a littele 
sugar candye, but a very littel, least it make it shine. Want of guming it 
causeth the cullor tempere like lome or claye etc. and drawes no fine 
line. If a cullor will not take by reason that some sweatye hand hand (sic) 
or fattye finger hath touched your parchment therabout, temper with 
that cullor a very littel eare waxe, but euen to give it but a tast as it 
weare, the same is good likewyse if any cullor pill of to temper the 
cullor you amend it withall, and it will pill no more. Liqued goolde 
and silluer must not be tempered with the finger but only with the 
penssel, and with as littel gume as will but bind it that it wype not of 
with euery touch, and with a prety littel toothe of some ferret or stote 
or other willde littele beast. 

You may burnish your goold or siluer here or there as neede 
Diamons requireth, as your siluer when you make your diamonds first burnished 

and pearle , . 

and other then drawne vppon with black in squares lyke the diamond cutt. 
Other stones must be glased vppon the siluer with their proper cullors 
with some varnish etc. ; the pearles layed with a whit mixed with a 
littel black, a littel Yndy blew, and a littel masticot, but very littel in 
comparison of the whit, not the hundred parte. That being dry, giue 
the light of your pearle with siluer somewhat more to the light 
side then the shadowe side, and as round and full as you cane, then 
take good whit delayed with a littel masticot, and vnderneath at the 
shadowe side giue it a compassing stroke which showes the reflection 
that a pearle hath, then without that a smale shadowe of seacole vnder- 
most of all. Paulo Lamatius in the last chapter of his fowerth bouck 
very truly (but absurd [sic]) sheweth that euerything must be shadowed 
in his kind ; which discretion is not giuen to euery painter after the liffe, 
but they will shadowe a faire face with a browne shadowe, and follow- 
ing the story works, which shadowes the whole face with one shadowe 
for hast. 

Shadowing Shadowing in lymning must not be driuen with the flat of the 
penscl as in oyle worke, (fo. lob) distemper, or washing, but with the 
pointe of the pencell by littel light touches with cullor very thine, and like 
hatches as wee call it with the pen ; though the shadowe be neuer so 


great it must be all so done by littel touches, and touch not to longe 
in one place, least it glisten, but let it dry ane howre or to, then dipen 
it againe. Wherfore hatching with the pene, in imitation of some fine 
well grauen portrature of Albertus Dure small peeces, is first to be 
practised and vsed, b[e]fore one begine to limme, and not to learne to 
limme at all till one canne imitate the print so well as one shall not 
knowe the one frome the other, that he maye be able to handle the 
pensill point in like sort. This is the true order and principall secret in 
limning, which that it maye be the better remembred, I end with it. 

And nowe I thinke it fitt also to speake somwhat of precious stones, 
which wilbe meet for gentelmen to vnderstand, and some gouldsmithes 
wilbe glad to see it for their better instruction. I saye, for certayne truth, 
that ther are besides whit and black but fyue perfect cullors in the 
world ; which I proue by the fyue principall precious stones (bearing 
cullor), and which are all bright and transparent stones, as followeth. 
Theise are the fyue stones: ammatist orient for murrey, rubie for 
red, saphire for blew, emrod for greene, and hard orient topics for 
yellowe ; more ther are not which are soe very hard and orient as these 
fyue. Nowe is proued, that the absolute orient and hardest transparent 
precious stones of proper and vnmixed cullors are only fyue, viz :- 

Annatist \ Murrey ,.,. 

Iheese fyue only cullors, in grosse cullors, with 




theire different mixtures, make more of many 

> kinds, euenen all maner of cullors as you list to 
Emarod \ Greene , , . . . 

hauc them by tempering them together, which 


weare long to repeate in writing. 


And as for m[i]xture of cullors, if you will see fine varyetie, behold Rainbowe 
the rainbowe, and therin shall you find an excellent mixture of all the 
transparent cullors, for there is nothing but mixt cullors : as first 
murrey, by mixture growing into or vnto blewe, blewe growing into 
greene, greene growing into yellow, yellow into redd, red againe into 
murrey, murrey into a purpel, being mixed with the skey cullor. This 
exampel (fo. 11) of the rainbowe sheweth the naturall mixture of cullors, 
and a sweete and agreeable varietie in their mixtures ; for they vary and 
agree in such a kindly beautifull order, as all the art of the worlde 


cannot amend it by mixture or other order, nor well in arte compare 
by imitation with the same. But the fyue precious stones resemble 
vnto vs the true beautie of each perfect cullor in his full perfection, 
without mixture, in perfect hard bodies and very transparent. 
Annatist As first of murrey : in the annatist orient haue you only perfect 

Orient . . . r 1 n 

murrey without mixture ; it is an hard stone and on 01 the pnncipall 
precious stones. There are diuers more kinds of annatists, as annatist 
almane & annatists of sundry other countrys, colde regions, all 
which are of diuers other cullors. I would speake only of theese 
fyue which I haue nominated, but least men should be deceiued 
or mistaken I am forced to name and mention the other baser 
stones of all the cullors, as of annatist almane ; some are purple, 
some violett, some carnation, some peach cullor, and some a browne 
smoakye cullor like watter wherin soote hath layen, and of all theise 
cullors their is great variety of each, some paller then other; theise 
are, as I saye before, all mixed cullors, and softe stones in each of the 
fyue kinds of stones, as I will hereafter shewe you. Take this therfor for 
a generall rulle, that the most precious stones, the hardest, deerest, 
and rarest to fynde, are these fyue only which I haue named, and which 
haue theire proper cullors only in them, and that of more substance 
and beauty transpareant and pure, not of a thicke or troubled matter, 
but clere and yet not pale. Wherfore as I haue formerly spoken of 
the annatist orient, it is a hard stone and right precious, delighting 
the hart exceedingly the hart exceedingly (sic) to behould, but all the 
other repeated mixt cullors are softe stones of smale value in com- 
parison to those of perfect cullors ; and although a very darke purpule 
is founde in some of the annatist almaine, a cullor of a more sub- 
stance for his cullor, I saye vnto you, as before I haue sayd, purpele is 
not a proper cullor, but mixt cullor, made of murrey & blewe, or redd 
and blewe, soe ouerblewed and darkened that the Frenchmen rightly 
terme it annatist le plus (fo. lib) triste, a sade malancholy cullor, 
delighting but some humore and fitting to porpose but one some 
fewe occasions. Noate also that the annatist oryent, being a perfect 
cullor and a hard stone, hath therfore his watter more bright and 
lucide then any soft stone can haue ; which brightnes is the cheefe 


thing-e wherby the lapidaric knoweth at the first sight the vallewe, 
goodnes, and hardnes of the stone, as shalbe more plainely shewed 
in the diamond hereafter. Noate therforc when any stone wanteth 
that liuely brightnes, it is either a safte stone, a thine stone, or a 
clowdye faulty stone althoughe it be hard. 

Now the next perfect cullor, which is redd : the rubye is the most Rubye 
perfect redd, and if he be without blemish, and so great and thicke 
as he maye beare the proportion of diamond cut, he flickereth and 
afecteth the eye like burning fyer, especially by the candel light. 
This stone therfore of some is called, and rightly maye be called, the 
carbunckle, soe called [from] the worde Carbo, which is fyer, or a cole of 
fyer ; neither is ther any other carbunckel which cane resemble fyer so 
well, except a redd diamond, which yet I neuer sawe, but haue harde of 
only. Yet haue I scene a diamond of the cullor of a jasent, some- 
what orrenge tawny, and a diamond greene as a grisolytt, and a 
diamond blewe as a pale blew sapihire, many yellowe and many 
browne. The rubye ballas is more pale, lyke a pale wine, and no 
perfect full cullor, and it is therfore a softer s[t]one, and of lesse valewe, 
soe are all rubye ballas. Now spynells and garnets of diuers sorts 
are reddish also, and resemble rubyes and annatists orient meetelye 
well, but they are to be knowne by the softnes on the myll in cutting, 
and partly by theire want of that brightnes which the hard stone hath, 
and want of perfect cullor, but a redd mixed with yeallowe more 
fyer then perfect redd, a stone of much delight and good valewe, but 
of lesse then the rubie, for it is softer, as all mixed cullors are 
softer then the perfect cullors ; and of the spinalls also ther are a paler 
kinde, lyke a delicate ould paled wyne, which resemble rubie ballas 
in like maner. 

Also garnets there are sundry sorts, some called garnets suryma, Gametts 
resembling much the annatist orient, but a littel blacker & redder 
then the true murrey. The more common sorte of garnetts are very 
redish, yea blacker then true redd, and somewhat yeallowish. Jasent 
labella is a kind of redd, very yeallowish (fo. 12), like the saffreon blade, 
but transparent and beautifull as any spinaller garnett, and as hard and 
bright. The common jasent is orrenge tawnye, a mixt cullor also. 


Vermyie Then ther is another kind of redd stone called vermyle, which 

are very small and neuer found greatter then a pease, but commonly 
no biger then rapeseed: a red more resembling blood then rubye, 
and is not that perfect crimson redd, most like the kirnelles of very 
ripe pomegranat, which nature hath commended vnto vs in the 
rubye to be the principall red cullor ; yet this littel poore stone hath 
that speciall vertue to endure the fyre, which none of the fornamed 
stones cann doe soe well. 

Saphire Nowe saphire, wherof there be two kinds or two cullors, white 


and blewe, which blewe is the most excelent perfect blewe that nature 
in anything yealdeth, or arte can compose. This stone excelleth in 
hardnes all stones (diamond excepted), and soe consequently in 
brightnes of watter, as before argued, which is proued when nature 
yealdeth him whitte. If he be well cutt he is matchable with any 
diamonds, especially of the greatter ones, for a great diamond is not 
so faire for his bignes commonly as a littel one, and a littel saphier 
not soe faire as a great one for his bignes. The reason is that the 
diamond cutter, for sparing the stone, if it be great, will not cutt any 
away of his circumference to giue his diamond full shape as he maye, 
and will doe a littel stone ; neither doeth nature giue to great ones 
(but rarely) any such good proportion or thicknes to theire breadth 
as haue the littel ones commonly, and this is generall both in stone 
and pearle, the greater the worse proportioned. Therfore proportion 
giuen to a stone by arte, by the cuning artificer, helpeth nature, 
and addeth beautye as well as nature doeth, to the great commenda- 
tions of that misterye or sience. 

Knowe this therfore, that as the bade workman spoiles many a good 
juell both in cutting, pulishing, and also in the setting, soe an excelent 
workman cann grace them aboue that which nature giue them both in 
cutting, setting, and making them in valewe double of that they 
weare before ; therfore he is better worthy of fowerfolde better pay- 
ment then any other, though paraduenture (fo. 12 b) he doe it much soner, 
but commonly they are indeed longer about theire worke, which maketh 
that they are poorer then the bunglers. For while the good workman 
taketh pleasure to shewe his art and cuning aboue othe[r] men in one 


peece (in what art soeuer), the botcher dispatches six or seauen, and 
giues it a good word or a boaste, keeping his promise within his time, 
which greatly pleaseth most men, for indeed the tyme is all in most 
matters, as sayet[h] one, A thing well done out of due time is ill done ; 
and soe hee getteth credit & custome which keepeth time, wherby he is 
able to set many other at work, which, though they be all bungler 
and spoilers, yet please in respect of good cheapnes and keeping of 
promise, and so growe rich. 

The good workman also which is soe excelent dependeth one his 
owne hand, and can hardly find any workmen to worke with him, to 
heelpe him to keepe promise, and worke as well as himselfe, which is a 
great mischeefe to him. Neither is he alwayes in humore to inploye 
his spirits on some worke, but rather one some other. Also such men are 
commonly noe mysers, but liberall aboue theire littel degree, knowing 
howe bountifull God hath indued them with skill aboue others; also 
they are much giuen to practises, to find out newe skills, and are euer 
trying conclusions, which spendeth both theire tine (sic) and mony, and 
ofttimes when they haue performed a rare pece of worke (which they 
indeede cannot afforde) they will giue it awaye to some worthy per- 
sonage for very affect[i]on and to be spoken of. They are generally 
giuen to trauel, and to confere with wise men, to fare meetly well and 
to serue theire fantasies, hauing commonly many childeren if they be 
maryed ; a[ll] wh[i]ch are causes of inpouerishment, if they be not 
stockt to receaue thereupon some profit by other trade, or that they 
be, as in other countries, by pencion or reward of princes otherwise 
vphelde and competently mayntayned, although they be neuer soe 
quicke nor soe cuninge in theire professions, depending but one theire 
owne hand helpe. 

Thus much I thought neede to insert in respect of the common 
opinion, or common slander (fo. 13) rather, which is, that cuning men are 
euer vnthrifts and theerfor generally poore indede, when by the causes 
afore sayde they are fallen poore, they haue a more vnthrifty sheewe 
then others, for they will spend still if they cann come buy it, soe that I 
thinke they haue the liberall siences, and it is a vertue in them, and 
becometh them like men of vnderstanding. If a man bring them a 



rare peece of worke, they will giue more for it then most men of 
tenne times their abilitye, and in other countries they are men of great 
wealth for the most parte. Then you, to whome it apertaineth to 
knowe, may perceiue the reason in p[ar]te why they are not so heere, 
the more is the pittye. 

Emerodde Well nowe for greene, for certainly the emrod is the most perfect 

greene on earth growing naturally, or that is in any thinge or that is 
possible by arte to make (if it be an emerodd of the owld myne), but 
rarely of the newe myne are they soe faire greene, for they are 
commonly paler, as it weare mixed with seae greene, and eemerodd of 
Perooe is of a thicke and troubled watter. There are in truth of theese 
three kinds of emrods, of each kinde diuers cullors. Noate also that 
of all the fine precious stones there are sometimes white ones, hauing 
no cullor at all, but cleere as christall, which are better in regard of 
the rarety then those which haue cullor (except theire cullor be in perfec- 
tion); and somtime there are found party-cullored, as emrods the one 
halfe greene and the other halfe pure cleare white, and soe likwise of 
all the otheres of the fyue stones ; such for the rarety are of the most 
price, and ought to be set soe as one maye see the stone one both sides 
to be the naturall stone only, else it seemeth counterfeit by arte. Ther 
are also sundry other greenish stones, which are no kind of emrods, 
nor soe good of vallue, namly griselite, which is popingey greene, 
egmeryne, which is a sea greene, and burill, which is yet a more 
blweish greene, and are found very great, but if small they be of small 
price or estimation. 

I might well resemble these stones vnto vs mankind, wherof 
some be excelent and precious, and the common sort at first \viewe are 
like also vnto them, but if you marke them weell you (fo. 13 b) shall find 
them mixed cullors, dissembler softe stones, not able to endure nor com- 
prehend scyence nor valorous deeds ; and as a good stone maye bee yll 
set and ill vsed, soe that hee is sould for naught, soe a good seruant nor 
[/o^not?] vsed in his kinde falleth frome the ignorant to a better master, 
and that, as I said, if the base stones be greeat they are esteemed. Whoe 
doubts of that ? It is the like of me. 

Yeaiiowes Nowe of yeallowes, the best is the topas orient or most perfect 

(a) Full length. The exact size of the original 


(b) Head and bust. Enlarged to twice the size of the original. 


By Nicholas Milliard 
(Salting Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum) 


goold yeallowe. If this stone want of his yeallownes his vallue is the 
lesse, except hee be pure whit, and haue noe yellowe at all, for then 
resembleth he the diamond, as dothe also the whit saphire, which is 
somwhat harder then the topas, but very little. Topas is better 
then white saphire if it be naturaly whit, because it resembleth more 
the best watter of a diamond, which is to incline a littell to yellowe, 
and will abyde to be sett and cutt on tynne no [for in ?] the diamond 
myll, as the diamond doth with diamond powder very well done. And 
the yellow topas, which is but by arte, as by fyer, burnt white, will 
oftentimes returne to his perfect yellowe againe, a thinge admirable. 
And a pale blewe saphire which hath a greenes in his blewe will 
neuer burne white, but rather recouer more blewnes, which is greatly 
to be marueled att likwise. 

Thus haue I sufficiently proued the fyue principall cullors by the 
fyue precious stones of most price, the diamond excepted, which 
properly is of no cullor, but a cleare watter cullor or ayre cullor, so 
lucyde and bright as hauing his due forme ; his splendor or light is 
somtimes called his fyer and somtimes his watter, by which his brightnes 
and his hardnes is knowne ; as for excample, allome or sugar candy 
or gums are somewhat bright and hard, but not soe hard and bright 
as cristall, saphire nothing so hard nor bright as diamond, which is 
indeede the brightest and therfore the hardest of all the precious 

I haue discoursed at large of all the perfect cullors which are in 
the fyue stones only, and a[l]so of the other mixed cullors, which are 
in all the other vnder stones of softer and basser kinds ; but now (as it 
weare in a ridle) I demand what stone is that which hath (fo. 14) in it two 
distinct and perfect cullors very apparent, and hath in it noe cullor at 
all, yet, if one looke longe into it, it hath many cullors radient and 
strange, but the diamond? And although white and blacke be both 
thicke cullors in painting, and not transparent, yet in the diamond they 
are cullors transparent and cleere and which may be counted amongst 
the transparent cullors both of whit and blacke, if whit and black weare 
counted cullors, as they are not, wherfore I set them downe for no 
cullor, although indeede nothing hath his light more white, nor his 

G 2 


shadowe more black ; and being cleere, more cleerer then ayre, yet being 
set on his black teyntor, or on any black pitch molten fast vnderneath 
vnto him, he changeth not his bright cleere whitnes as any other stone 
would doe, as topas, saphiere, white rubye, or whatsoever, which is 
a most admirable thinge to consider among the secretts in nature, and 
is the best waye to knowe a diamond frome another stone without 
hurting it. This secret is not to be devulged, because stolne thfngs 
are brought to sell and therfore [a thief is] oftentimes taken by his 
owne ignorantnes of the thinge hee offereth to sell, but the best hope is, 
they reade but fewe good bookes which vse such facshions. 
Opaii Now their is another stone which hath all cullors in itselfe, appa- 

rently some blacke that are transparent cullors, namly the opall, which in 
it hath a perfect fyer cullor, and all the cullors in the rainebowe, though 
not placed in that order, but in a broken changable and retracted order, 
which changeth his reflections with euery turne through a sertaine 

cloudie cleere milkeish whitnes lyke a J but the lesse it hath whitnes 

the better it is. This stone is of a great value if he be great and fayre, 
and is equall for his bignes to anye stone (diamond aid rubye exce[p]ted), 
but is not much harder then pearle, and easely weareth rough. Ther 
is also another transparant stone, which we call geratsolis, which hath 
no cullors but a kynde of shyning, and if the sune or sume bright daye- 
light dayelight (sic) weare vnder it or within it. Turcas, which is a 
thicke wached cullor, is also a good stone of price and estimation, and 
the softest of thicke culored p[r]ecious stones ; the number wherof of 
such stones (fo. 14 b) are soe manye as weare longe to receite, which I 
leaue therfore to speake of, as not soe needfull to the treatise of perfect 
cullors, for they are all but mixed coullors. Wale. 

Howe to make the picture seeme to looke one in the face, which 
waie soe euer he goe or stand. 

Eauery man cannot possibly (though he haue the knowlege) doe 
euery worke he knowes, by reason of his naturall infermity of complec- 
tion or humor, as for drawing vnder christall. 

M m Blanchgreene for flowers of home. 

Questions to be talked on. 

1 Blank space in MS. 


Whcrof the carnations are to be made, and howe the precious 
stones and pearle etc. 

In drawing after the life, site not nearer then too yards from the 
partye ; and sit as euen of height as possible you maye, but if hee be a 
very highe person, lett him sitte a littel aboue, because generally men 
be vnder him, and will soe juge of the picture, because they vnder- 
viewe him ; if it be a very lowe person or childe, vse the like discretion in 
placing him somewhat lower then yourselfe. If you drawe frome head 
to foote, lett the party stand at least sixc yards frome you, when you 
take the discription of his whole stature, and so likwise for the 
stelling of your picture, whate lenght soeuer, after you haue propor- 
tioned the face, let the party arise, and stand, for in sitting fewe cane 
sit very vpright as they stand, wherby the drawer is greatly deceiued 
commonly, and the party drawne disgraced. Tell not a body when you 
drawe the hands, but when you spie a good grace in theire hand take 
it quickly, or praye them to stand but still, for commonly when they 
are towld, they giue the hand the worse and more vnnaturall or affected 
grace. I would wish anybody to be well resolued with themselues 
beforehand with what grace they would stand, and seeme as though 
they neuer had resolued, nor weare to seeke, but take it without 


the 18 of March 1624 

Londres ' 

A* more compendious discourse consenting y e art of liming, 
the natture and properties of the coullers. 

To proceed & begine with ye coullers, whitt for it's virgin 
puritie is the most exellent, viz', ceruse & whitt lead, both subiect 
to inconueniencies, and are thus preuented. The cerusse (after you 
haue wrought itt) will tarnish, and many tims looke of a redish 

1 This inscription is at the foot of the page ; it appears to be in the same hand as the 
foregoing text. 

- Fo. 15 begins here. What follows (ff. 15-16) is in a different hand, and was probably 
written towards the middle of the seventeenth century. 


Whits or yeallowishe couller, the whitt lead iff to much ground will glister 
or shine, & iff you grind itt to course will bee vnfitt to worke & 
so vnseruicable. Ther is but on way to remidy itt, which is to lay 
them in ye sunn to or three days before you grind y em , which will 
exhalle and draw away those sallt and gressie mixtures y" starue 
and poyson the coullers ; besids you must scrape away the superfices 
of the whitt lead, and only euse the purest of itt. Put to this, as to all 
your coullers, a littell gume arabeck of the best and whittest, which 
you must haue by you in a littel box, made into very fine powder or elce 
disolued into watter, as you please, and with a few drops of fair runing 
watter temper itt with your finger till the gume be incorporated or 
disolued. The gume must bee vs'd att discretion ; your owne practice 
will informe you y e best, for no generall rulle can be giuen, only 
leaue not your coullers to moist & reliqued but somewhatt thicke & 
clamy, & then couer itt cleane frome the dust till it bee dry in the shell, 
and then, if itt bee not to much nor to littell bound, you will find itt, iff 
to much itt will glissen, iff to littell, drawing your finger ouer itt some 
of the couller will come of. 

The grind- India lake to be ground with gume watter, and spread thine 

ing of your 

coullers about the shell, vmber and some other coullers much subject to crakle 
& fall frome the shell in pieces ; when you find itt so, take a littell whitt 
sugar candy reduced into fine powder, and with a few drops of fair 
watter you must temper the couller againe as itt is in the shell till 
both the coullers & the suggar candy be throughly dissollued, which 
being once dry will lye fast in the shell. English oker will lye fast in 
the shell, & workes well iff well ground. Pink is also a very good 
couller and workes sharpe and neatt, and must be ground as y c rest. 
Umber, being a fowle and gressie couller, iff when you haue bought 
itt you burne itt in a crusible or goldsmiths pott, itt is clensed & 
being ground as the rest workes well. Tera de Collana is easie to 
worke when itt is new grownd, and is very good to close vp the last 
& deepest touches in the shadowed places of picturs by y e liffe. 
Cheristone and iuory are both to bee burned & so ground; the 
first is a very good blak, especially for drapperies and blake aparell, 

To make but if you mak sattin itt must be tempered with a littell India lake 

C"\ *(.- * 



& indico, but only to make itt apcere with a more beautifull glose, 
which, heightned with a littell lighter mixtur of more whittish in 
strong touches & hard reflections, and deep'ned with iuory, will shew 
maruellous well. Iuory blake must be well tempered with suggar candy 
to preuent craking. 

But befor I begine I will shew you the reson why thes To wash 
coullers must be washed, which is because they are of a sandy, c 
loose & & (sic) grauely quallitie, & so heauy & ponderous & sollid 
bodies y" thay will hardly be reduced to that finenesse requierable 
in this art; for iff you thinke to make them fine by grinding thay 
will instantly loose ther beawtie. To refine y em therfore by washing, How to 
you are to take of red lead, which is the first in number, about an 
ounce or ton, iff you please, and puting itt in a littell basson or such 
like of clear watter stire itt for a whille togeather either with your 
hand or some spoone, till you see the watter all coullered & stained 
with the couller, then lett itt stand a whille, and you will perceaue 
on the vper face of y e watter a gressy skome arise, which togather 
with all the watter powr out and cast away. Then fill you[r] basson 
with fresh watter and stirr itt as before, which done, before the watter 
be halfe settled powre itt into another clean porrenger or such lik, 
reseruing behind in the first bason the dreggs & settling of the coullers, 
which may be the greattest parte, (/<?. i5b) yet itt is to be cast away, 
for much is not that you are to seeke but good, for a littell in any 
couller goes far in limning. And if a handfull of red lead yeald a 
shell or ton of good couller, itt is enough, so itt be fine. 

The coullered & trubled watter, as I sayed before, being in a 
second dish, ade more watter therto, and wash them well togeather 
as before, which done lett itt settle till the watter be allmost cleare. Ift 
you perceaue the skume arise still vpon the watter, powre it of still, 
till the watter be cleare, for y e skume is chalke or other filth in the 
couller, which you are to cast of by stirring itt (I mean, all the 
couler togeather), then sufering itt to settle, and as longe as the skume 
ariseth still powr itt away. Itt will not be amisse iff, when you haue 
was[h]t your couller a whille & stirring the watter till againe itt 
become thike, you powre out halfe of that thickned watter into a third 


dish, and washin[g] both y e second & the third you will find you[r] 
couler of a courser and finer quallitie, insomuch as the third, & iff 
you please y e 4th and 5th, will be very fine and faire. When you 
haue well washed them often, & by continuall changing and shifting 
the watters & coullers you find itt perfectly clensed, you must by littell 
and littell gently draw away y e remaine of y e watter, not sufering 
any, or very littell, of the couller to goe away with itt, so that setting 
your dishes in the sunn & sheluing them one the one side, you will 
find your couller dryed and lying about the sids of the dishes, 
like drifts of sand ; in some places you will find itt faire & cleare 
and fine, and in other more course and fowle. When itt is all through 
dryed, take away with your finger or feather the finest parte of the 
couller, which will like fine flower fall away with the least touch. 
Reserue itt for your vse ; y e courser sort you may keepe for ordinary 
worke. But when you vse this couller you must take as much as will 
lye in a shell (I meane only to spread about the side of a shell somwhatt 
thinne, that you may handsomly take itt of with your pencill, which you 
cannot conueniently doe if you fill your shell full or lett itt lie thike or on 
heaps), and with gume watter or gume in powlder (as I sayed before) 
with a few drops of watter temper itt finely with your finger and lett itt 
spread about the sids of y e shells, as you did in your other ground 
For your collers. For your pencills: [they] must be well chosen, cleane and 
sharpe pointed, not deuiding into parts, full & thike towards the quill 
& so decending to a round and sharp point. I preferre thesse before 
y em that are longe & slender, as retaining the couller longer & 
deliuering itt out more free and flowing then the other ; iff any haire is 
longer then the rest take it off with a sharp pen-kniff, or passe itt 
through the flame of a candle. The pencills you vse in gold or silluer 
you are to reserue for thatt purpose, and not to mix or temper with 
other coullors. 

For your Itt may be ouall, or square, as you will, or the partie drawne desirs 

carde itt. Take an ordinary playing card, pollish itt and make itt so smoth as 

possible you can, y whitt side of itt, make itt eurywheare euen, and 

clean frome spots, then chuse the best abortiue parchment, & cutting 

out a peece equall to your card, with fine and cleane starch past itt on 


the card ; which done, lett itt dry, then making your grindstone as cleane 
as may bee, lay the card on the stone, the parchment sid downeward, 
and then pollish itt well on the backe sid, itt will make much the smother. 
You must past your parchment so that the outside of the skinn may be 
outward, itt being the smothest and best side to worke on. 

(fo. 1 6) You are to lay your ground or primer of a flesh couller so neer TO lay 
as you can, of the same complexcion the partie is, rather somwhatt fairer, ground 
for by shadowing you can make itt browner att pleasure, for in limn- 
ing you must neuer heighten, but worke itt downe to y e just coller. 
Hauing prepared your coller, you remenber to fill your pencill full of 
coller, rather thinn & watterish then thicke & grose, and with to or 
three sweeps or dashes, with a bigger then ordinarie pencill, lay itt 
on in an instant ; for the sooner you doe itt, the better and euener will 
your coller lye, and forgett not to couer so much or more of your 
card then you meane to make the face, because that if you should 
happen to lay the ground to littell you will very hardly add any 
more on to itt but very vneuen and not suttable to the rest. Therfore all 
must be done att once and speedily, for iff you be longe in laying this 
complexion the card or rather parchment will roughell or risse and 
come frome the card. 

This done, you are to take a pretty large shell of mother of pearlle To temper 
or such like, and before you begin to worke you must temper certaine coUors 
littlle heaps of seuerall shadows for the face, which, as the oyle painters 
lay on their woden pallats, in like maner you must lay them ready 
prepared in order by themselues about the border or circomferance of 
the shells. 

The first coullers you are to begine the face with are red, that is to How to 
say, of the cheeks and lipps somwhat strongly, in the bottome of the s r t ' 
chinne if the partie be beardlesse, as allso ouer, vnder and about the eyes. c 
You will perceaue a dellicate and faint rednes about the eies, somwhat 
inclining to a purple, which in faire and beautiful faces is ordinary and 
must be obserued dilligently. All this you must worke after the maner of 
washing or hatching, drawing your pencill along and with faint & 
gentle stroaks, or rather washing or wipping them with pricks to prick 
and punch itt, as some doe affech. In your dead coulloring you need not 



be exactt and curious, but rather bold and juditious ; for though your 
worke appeers rough at first, yett in the finishing your worke will be in 
your owne power and pleasure to sweeten & close itt as neat & curiously 
as you will. Your next worke is the faint & blew shadows about 
the eys, the corners and balls of them, and grayish & blewish 
shadows about y e temples, which you are to worke frome the vper parte 
of the face, exceeding sweett & faint by degrees. The fainter and 

For your lighter shadows being done & somewhatt smothed & wrought into 
the red, you may goe ouer your hair ; you must first draw them with 
collor as neere as you can suttable to the life, and afterward wash 
then (sic} roughly as the rest. 

TO make Your armour layd liquid silluer, flatt & euen, which dryed and 

burnisht with a small wessells tooth handsomly fitted into a pensill 
stick, then temper the shadow for your armour with silluer, littmas and 
a little vmber, and worke your shadows vpon & ouer the silluer 
acording to the obseru[a]tions in the lifFe ; the burnisht siluer to be 
left for the heightnings, the deepnings must be y e deepest of your 
shadows, the thinner parte whearof with some store of silluer must be 
sweetly & neatly wrought into y e silluer layd all flatt before. 

For gold As for gold, you may lay your ground flatt with English oaker 

tempered with liqued gold ; yett there is a stone growing in the oxes 
gall which they call a gall-stone, which is [for if] ground & tempered 
with gold is of exelent luster and beawtie, in the shadowing of which 
in the deeppest & darkest places must be mixed a littell blacke. The 
hightning must be the finest and purest gold (I meane liqued). Iff in 
your gold worke thar be any caruing or imbosiing, and that in y c 
lighter parts, itt must be sparkling & pleasant. 



WE have claimed for Nicholas Billiard that he was the first great English 
exponent of miniature painting, in which our artists were destined for several 
generations to be pre-eminent, while the painting of life-sized portraits was 
almost entirely in the hands of foreigners. It must not, however, be forgotten 
that long before his time the English were highly skilled in the illumination of 
manuscripts on vellum, an art akin to that of the miniaturist, and that these 
now and then contained portraits, for instance that on the frontispiece of the 
Salisbury Lectionarium, of Lord Lovell of Tichmarsh receiving the book from 
its maker, John Siverwas, which dates from about the end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury ; and again the fifteenth-century portrait of Geoffrey Chaucer by Occleve 
in a manuscript ' De Regimine Principis ' (Harl. MSS. 4866). When printing 
became general, this art of necessity languished, but from it was evolved the 
production of separate portraits on a small scale, in place of such work as 
part of the decoration of a manuscript. 

Miniature portrait painting having already been practised to some slight 
extent, not only in England but at various places on the Continent, and evidently 
supplying a want, it was not to be wondered at that Hans Holbein, equipped 
by genius and training for work of this kind, should take up the new fashion and 
become its greatest exponent. We have seen that Hilliard expressed high 
admiration for that master, and claimed that he had always imitated Holbein's 
manner, which he held to be the best. We should, therefore, have expected his 
miniatures to resemble more closely the work of Holbein, but as a rule they have 
much less effect of light and shade. In this respect, and perhaps in others for 
instance in the frequent use of gold they are sometimes more directly akin to the 
old illuminations, from which undoubtedly their technique was in part derived. 
It should be added perhaps that John Shute, mentioned by Haydocke, and author 
of ' The First and Chief Groundes of Architecture ', apparently practised the art 
of miniature painting before Hilliard. Bettes, whom Haydocke names in the 
same sentence, was Hilliard's pupil. 

Hilliard's account of his conversation with Queen Elizabeth, which is 
given in the 'treatise', supplies ample reason why, in her portraits at least, 

H 2 


he avoided much shadow; but the appearance of flatness in many other 
faces painted by him is on close examination found to be caused largely by 
the fading of the carnations, which have yielded too often to the assaults of 
time or ill usage. Although in his own day Milliard's reputation as a limner 
was pre-eminent, this frequent absence of strong effect in his modelling has 
inclined some people, beginning with Horace Walpole, to rank him as a minia- 
turist below his famous pupil Isaac Oliver. To our minds, however, there is 
no need for treating them as rivals, since each has expressed his own feeling 
quite admirably. We prefer to class the two together in the words of Peacham, 
who in his account of limning, as incorporated in The Compleat Gentleman, wrote 
as follows : ' Nor must I be ungratefully unmindful of mine own countrymen, 
who have been and are equal to the best if occasion served, as old Hilliard, 
Mr. Isaac Oliver, inferior to none in Christendome for the countenance in small.' 

Hilliard painted strenuously from boyhood to old age, and most of his 
sitters were among the great people of the land. Portraits by him are, there- 
fore, still numerous. We can only give a few typical examples. In three 
cases, to show their genuine condition we have ventured to make the repro- 
ductions considerably larger than the originals. On such a scale we see 
clearly that Hilliard's work has not been tampered with ; it is also easier to 
appreciate the masterly character of the craftsmanship. In this respect, at least, 
he resembles Holbein. 

There seems to be considerable misapprehension as to the nature of the 
material on which Holbein painted. It is proved by his own treatise that 
his habit was to use the finest and smoothest vellum; most carefully pasted 
on to a card, and we find that for this purpose he often chose a playing- 
card. Dallaway, in his edition of Walpole's Anecdotes (note to vol. i, p. 288), 
remarks that the tablets on which Hilliard painted were 'seldom of ivory'. 
He evidently "had not devoted attention to this particular subject. In fact, one 
of the earliest miniatures on ivory, if not the earliest known, is that represent- 
ing the first Duke of Schomberg, who was killed at the Battle of the Boyne 
in 1690. This example, which belonged to the late Dr. Lumsden Propert, 
was shown at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1889. The writer of the intro- 
duction to the catalogue then issued tells us that it is ' on a thick ivory plate 
quite rough at the back '. We can judge therefore that it bears but slight 
resemblance to the thin slips of ivory which have so long been in use and, 
lending themselves as they do to transparent painting, helped to develop the 
exquisite, if in a sense decadent, art of Cosway. 

Plate IV. 


By Nicholas Milliard. 

Enlarged to twice the size of the original 

(National Portrait Gallery) 






This is one of at least four portraits of the artist painted by himself. The 
inscription on the background in gold lettering is A no Dm ifjj jEtatis suce jo 
- the puzzling figures that imply his having been born in 1547. It belongs to 
a pair said in the essay appended to the translation of De Piles' Art of Painting, 
1706, to have been then the property of Simon Fanshaw, Esq. Horace Walpole 
tells us that Vertue ' saw them afterwards in the possession of the last Sidney 
Earl of Leicester, and that they had been taken out of the old frames and set 
in a snuff box'. In Walpole's time it appears that a Mr. Simon Fanshaw 
was owner of ' two such heads ', by some thought to be the very portraits, a 
belief in which he at first shared, although one had no inscription and the other 
only the date of the year and the age, but in the 3rd edition of his Anecdotes, 
published by Dodsley in 1782 and so described on the title-page, he adds that 
' Lord Leicester gave the snuff-box in question to Marshal Sir Robert Rich, 
in whose possession it remains with the pictures '. The original frame cannot 
now be found ; it must have had round it the rest of the inscription quoted by 
Walpole from De Piles as having belonged to this miniature. 

In Dallaway's edition of the Anecdotes (1826 8) there is an engraving of 
Nicholas Milliard, which, as is proved by a reference below it, he believed 
to have been taken from the Fanshaw miniature. It is in fact extremely 
like, but not identical. Besides slight variations in the detail it has one 
important omission, namely that of the date and age on the background. 
There is a Latin inscription round the frame. This engraving is in fact 
from a miniature now belonging to Mr. Currie of Minley Manor. It has no 
inscription on the background, but round the original setting are precisely the 
same words spelt in the same way as those that appear round Dallaway's 
illustration. We have given them on a previous page; they are the same 
in sense though not in spelling as the words which were on the original 
frame of the Salting portrait, and which are given in Walpole's text. 
The Dallaway engraving is stated to be after an original at Penshurst, and 
we know that Mr. Currie's miniature came from there. It was in the Bur- 
lington Fine Arts Club Exhibition of 1889 when still belonging to its old home. 




This portrait, companion to the Salting miniature of the son, has on 
the background, sEtatis suet j<$ Anno Dm. 7/77. Walpole gives also the 
words, Ricardus Hilliardus quondam vicecomes civitatis et comitatus Exonict 
anno 1560. The latter inscription is said to be on the original silver-gilt frame, 
still in existence and now the property of Lord De L'Isle. The pair of minia - 
tures, bereft of their old setting, passed from the Rich family into the hands 
of Mrs Claverton, whose niece, Mrs. Thomas Liddell, was their next possessor, 
and in turn gave them to her niece, Mrs. Sartoris, by whom they were sold at 
Christie's, their purchaser being Mr. Salting. We can therefore trace an 
unbroken succession of owners from the year 1706. A duplicate portrait of 
Richard Billiard, which had belonged to Walpole, was sold for ^4 145. 6d. at the 
sale of the Strawberry Hill collection, and is now at Montagu House. It is of 
oval form instead of being round. The lettering and figures on the back- 
ground are differently arranged. 



Beyond the fact that, although the flesh colour is sadly faded, this is a fine 
example of one phase of Hilliard's art, nothing of importance is known about it. 
The young man leans in a somewhat lackadaisical attitude against a tree, and 
above his head in small gold letters are the words ' Dat paenas laudata fides '. 


On the left shoulder is a white rose. The deep blue background appears 
to be composed of ultramarine, as are the backgrounds of the Salting miniatures 
of Nicholas and Richard Hilliard. On it are the letters E R, and round the head 
Anno Dni 1572 Abatis suce 38. It is on the back of a playing-card cut into oval 
form the Queen of Hearts. This is one of Hilliard's best portraits of Queen 
Elizabeth, and was bought by the Trustees of the National Portrait Gallery from 
Mrs. Mallett in 1860. The previous owner was Dr. Hue. 

P. N. 



(The illustrations are from photographs specially taken by Mr. Arthur Gardner.) 

IT is not difficult to find reasons why scant justice has been done to the 
mediaeval sculptures of England. For one thing the architectural interest of 
our great churches has overshadowed the sculpture-performance, and secondly, 
where, as at Wells, the latter is seen to be considerable, common report finds it 
only a second-hand offshoot of the continental style. It is true that, with the 
exception of the Wells front, the facades of our churches cannot offer anything 
approaching comparison with the porched galleries of mediaeval sculpture that 
are seen abroad. Also, whereas the interiors of many continental churches are 
stocked with ancient statues, the English as a rule have at most the sepulchral 
figures only. There has been with us a clean sweep of the ancient religious 
imagery, and an equal destruction of the smaller religious carvings, wherever 
they could be seen and got at for defacement. Accordingly the English figure- 
work is now either much weather-worn from its exposed position externally, or 
is seen broken or hidden away in dark corners. But the comparative rarity of 
the English pieces and their bad condition must not be pressed to the conclusion 
that figure-sculpture was in less repute for English churches, or in less demand, 
than in France or Germany. In their total the survivals of our mediaeval figure- 
work are far from inconsiderable Mr. Gardner and myself reckon that in our 
ten years' quest for examples we have had under our eyes over ten thousand 
pieces ' : and if anybody will go into the evidence, he will be assured that the 
examples are but the remnants of a perished host that ten, perhaps a hundred, 
times as much as we see has disappeared. If for no other reason than this the 
attribution of English pieces to foreign hands must seem unlikely for such a 
body of sculpture could scarcely have been executed in the course of uncertain 
visits by imported artists. There are with us, no doubt, sporadic examples of 
imported sculpture, and occasionally of sculptors, just as we find English work, 
and also the English artist, abroad. But in order to produce so continuous an 
output of religious carving of all kinds, such as we have from the seventh to 
the sixteenth century, there must in England have lived generations of accom- 
plished artists, whose schools of figure-work were in progress some centuries 
before Henry VIII introduced ' Peter Torrisany, of the city of Florence, graver'. 

1 Medieval Figure-Sculpture in England, Prior and Gardner (Cambridge University Press). 


It will not be long, we think, before students of sculpture will readily 
recognize that a distinctive quality exists in the English work, and that this has 
a history independent of the French and German schools as well as alongside 
of them. In the first place it can be seen that there were activities of sculpture- 
style in England which were little or not at all practised abroad for example, 
the figure-work of the Anglian and Norse Crosses. Again, the memorial figures 
on the tombs of English churches have a quality different from that of any 
continental examples and this apart from the fact that our knight-effigies 
have a range of sculpture-motives unmatched abroad. The alabaster retables, 
too, must be acknowledged as a special product of English carving, for we 
find that they were imported to all parts of West Europe in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, so that, though with us they remain only as damaged 
fragments, entire specimens are not uncommon in the churches and museums 
of France and Italy. Another product of English art was the figure-carving of 
the bosses that were developed so prodigally in the fifteenth-century vaultings 
peculiar to England. The same may be said of the angel carvings of our 
roofs, and of that minute wood sculpture which English misericords and 
bench ends show. The history of European sculpture is incomplete when it 
omits acknowledgement of these English specialities. 

Moreover, when the English sculptors worked under the same regime as 
the continental schools, exhibiting the same motives and the same expressions, 
the English quality has to be recognized in the style of the work with a 
difference, and in some cases with a distinction by the side of French and 
German. But here we have to admit a very serious disability that embarrasses 
any effort to bring English sculpture to the appreciation of taste. A false 
idea has been presented of it, because a sham mediaevalism has claimed to 
reproduce it in our churches. Restoration carving, and especially its figure- 
work, has developed an abject cult of imbecile sentiment and puerile execution. 
Caricatured bishops and mawkish saints are thought religious sculpture, fit for 
the niches of the ancient art : heads and missing parts are irreverently added 
to the ancient torsoes, and when the original statues exist, as at Exeter, the 
natural setting of the ancient masters is made ridiculous by vulgar additions. 
And these wrongs done to religious art have not been those of Victorian 
vandalism only, blunted to our consciences by the lapse of a generation or so : 
unfortunately they arc of yesterday and to-day. Such a misunderstanding 
of mediaeval sculpture as allows all these ' restoration ' atrocities cannot but be 
difficult to remove. If the falsity of a religious sham and the execution of 
mechanical indifference equip sculpture to be a reproduction of mediaeval 
style, then that style has no call for attention by serious artists it was a 
base, senseless incapacity. But our claim is that instead of being a farcical 
make-believe, the religion of the mediaeval artist was a reality that his handling 

Plate V. 

Wells Cathedral. 

Sculptures of 
West Front. 

c 1230. 

The figures are 
about 2 ft. high. 

a. The Creation of Adam. 

b. The Garden of Eden. 

Plate VI. 

Wells Cathedral. 

Sculptures of 
West Front. 

c. 1230. 

The figures are 
about 2ft. high. 

a. Adam & Kve. 

b. Christ and the Doctor. 


was a practical ability, not a mechanical slavery. Neither motive nor technique 
had anything in common with the commercial art, whose wares now profess to 
furnish churches. 

Particularly the style of the English figure-sculpture may claim the repute 
of honest belief and practical skill. The sculptural sincerity of the English 
work rings true, whether they were saints or knights that it had the mind 
to model, whether they were minstrel angels or belching devils that were its 
themes. For the two centuries of Gothic style the sculptor worked in the body of 
the building, and not till the end did the practical sense of the building-content 
desert his creations or fail to endow them with the strength of monumental 
fitness. The specially English quality lay in this architectural restraint and in 
the simplicity and serenity of the religious expression gained thereby. The note 
was struck early in our work, as can be seen in the Bible reliefs at Wells, which 
must be dated before 1230 (Plates V and VI). Our sculptures seldom have the 
learning or the intellectual force of the best Gothic creations in France, but 
show a tenderness of expression sometimes absent from the French. English 
work never developed that picturesque ecstasy that the connoisseur looks for in 
German religious work, nor had it those dexterous characterizations which the 
Flemish art cultivated. On the other hand, it was without the grimace that 
often offends us in the work of both the German and Flemish schools. 

Still, it is not the aim of this paper to enter into the interesting points 
connected with the national traits of mediaeval style, nor to trace the cross- 
currents of influence, which can be detected merging the English sculpture with 
that of the Continent. The first point must be to free mediaeval genius from 
the contemptuous estimation which places it along with the base work of 
modern ecclesiastical taste. To do this consideration must be given to what the 
religious art of the mediaeval church had in its mind. It will be understood that 
its sculpture was religious, because religion and life were one in a sense that has 
no parallel in modern life. From A. D. 600 to 1500 the consciousness of liturgic 
truth was in the open, and faith was spectacular. In our days faith lies beneath 
the surface is unpractised in outward demeanour, but has its sphere in thought, 
in books, in newspapers, in reviews. But in the Middle Ages the arts of 
building spread an open page where could be read all the phases of social life. 
The world was a stage actually in which real parts were played, each man 
dresse'd to his part each trade, each office, each degree with its peculiar and 
separate costume, its special and peculiar action and gag, such as an actor has in 
a play. Not to play your part and know its gag meant excommunication and 
outlawry. In this sense mediaeval religion had its open theatre in the archi- 
tecture of its churches, and the dramatis personae were sculpture. 

We may broadly distinguish three acts : (i) the symbolical, (2) the 
intellectual, and (3) the anecdotal. At the outset, while mediaeval faith was 



subjective and mystical, then we have symbolism in sculpture; next, when 
religious truth became objective and dogmatic, as expressed in the scholastic 
theology, sculpture was modelled by intellectual ideas; thirdly, when faith 
grew sentimental and moral, sculpture became romantic, sensational, and 
anecdotal. But though the scenery changed, the action of the play made one 
continuous piece the motives of twelfth-century symbolism grew on into 
thirteenth-century intellectualism by slow degrees; in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth the demand for romantic story and moral anecdote almost imper- 
ceptibly replaced that for dogmatic exposition. 

A.D. 6^0-1066. 

Symbolism in sculpture was the proposal to exhibit the reality by the 
representation of things not real. The faith of the Christian Church was the 
real existence, and it had to be conveyed to the sight; therefore, for this 
conveyance mediaeval art used mystic signs, strange monsters, and patent 
unrealities. In the earliest work interlacing knots and leafy scrolls appear, 
but they were not decorative fancies as now such things are. In the sculpture 
of the ninth century and on to the twelfth the twisting stem meant the endless 
chain of eternity, or the branching tree of Paradise. The birds and beasts on 
early sculpture were not to represent anything living they were souls in glory. 
The peacocks and doves that are sculptured are feeding on the fruits of the Gospel ; 
the dragons, twisting and writhing together, are good and evil in conflict. 
Winged creatures that spear snakes are Christianity subduing Paganism ; the 
Lamb with the Flag is Christ ; the Lion is Christ the Lion of the tribe of Judah, 
and so on. If scenes of sacred narrative occur, they are wrested from all 
scenic realization. The Saints are stuck up side by side like ninepins; the 
crucified Christ is shown as a crowned King, or as a Shepherd with a crook 
leading the sheep; as piping the souls out of Hades, or in Hell trampling on 
the powers of darkness. 

As a generalization we may say that in two ways the East gave to 
the West the symbols which sculpture used for its mysteries, one by the 
Mediterranean conduit, in the same course as came the Christian polity, or the 
Church, the other by the Scandinavian, whereby came the Pagan polity, or 
Feudalism. One was the product of Greek, or as it is called Byzantine, civiliza- 
tion, the other of the Viking. We shall see both ways reflected in the early 
sculpture of England. 

The standing crosses of North England, as at Bewcastle (Plate VII, a), 
throw a vivid light on European history of the dark ages. It speaks volumes 
for the desolation of the Mediterranean centres that such a monument should be 

Plate VII. 


t. 7AV, 

b. Cross at Durham, c. 1000 Figure about loin. 



a. Bewcastle Cross, c. 700 
Figures about 4ft. 

c. Romsey. c. 1103. Figure 7ft. 

Plate VIII. 






' /. m 


unmatched in continental Europe that its refined sculpture of the figure, its 
just and accurate decorative sense, its elegant outline, should have its home here 
r.on a bare Cumberland fell. Still, we cannot father its art on the Northmen, 
whose art was only war. From Byzantine style came the correct proportions 
and meditative grace of the Bewcastle ' Christ '. The vines and griffins that 
decorate these Anglian crosses were not conceived as models for sculpture in 
the misty northern moors. They have come to England as the long tradition 
of Greek elegance, because this earliest sculpture was a missionary craft 
reflecting the Christianizing of North England by Wilfred. It was no more 
native to Englishmen than the Gothic cathedral at Capetown is to the Bushmen. 

But the Greek grace of the missionary builders lasted scarcely a century. 
At Gosforth in Cumberland a cross some 150 years later is another remarkable 
monument such as is found nowhere on the continent of Europe. But here, in 
place of the correct, serene themes of Eastern decoration, we have barbarous 
animals, a life of wastes and forests, the mythology of Odin and the World- 
snake. So was reflected a fresh social era ; it was a period of Norse invasions, 
of continual raiding and massacre, and the slow conversion of the Danish 
hordes, their heathenism at first scarcely tinctured by Christianity. While all 
the coasts of Europe were devastated, and the Northmen were for a time 
wiping out culture, in Ireland the Keltic Church stood like a beacon in the 
wide waste of northern ferocity, and Irish-Viking art, such as is shown in the 
Durham crosses (Plate VII, b), reveals itself as the just expression of the tenth 
century in English style. 

They were still the darker ages of flickering culture, and constant quench- 
ing of the flame. But in another hundred years there had reached England 
the force that was once and for all re-creating mediaeval Europe. The broad 
basis of all modern life in West Europe was that laid in the expansion of monastic 
institutions. This widespread dominion of the order of St. Benedict was already 
civilizing England before the Norman Conquest. The 'roods' or great stone 
crucifixes not standing crosses, but modelled relief-sculpture on flat stone slabs, 
like that at Romsey (Plate VII, c) witness to the arts of the Saxon cloister whose 
culture was pre-eminent in Europe. How close together were the ideas of this 
rood-sculpture and those of the manuscript-painting in the Saxon scriptoria can 
be seen by reference to crucifixion paintings in the tenth- and eleventh-century 
illuminations. At Chichester are two famous relief-sculptures, representing the 
Saviour coming to the house of Martha and Mary, and the raising of Lazarus. 
In the variety of the head-dresses, the bent figures, the gestures of grief, and 
the sorrowing faces (Plate VIII), the dexterity and the motives of the Saxon 
manuscript painter have been immediately rendered by the Saxon sculptor. 

i 2 


A.D. 1066-1200. 

We next find English sculpture after a momentous change. The Norman 
Conquest swept England into the broad stream of Western civilization, and 
accordingly identical types of Romanesque sculpture occur here as in every 
part of Europe. In our churches, just as in Greece, in Italy, in North-west 
Spain, or in the many provinces of France, twelfth-century doorways and 
capitals show in full luxuriance that sculpture of symbolic monsters, 'that 
menagerie of symbolism, which made decoration out of griffins, wyverns, and 
basilisks, as well as all the known or conjectured denizens of the field. 

But one must also observe that the first building-sculpture of English churches 
drew motives from Norse cross-carving. At Southwell the 'Archangel Michael 
separating the sheep from the goats ' is a work probably pre-Conquest : while at 
Dinton the 'Animals battening on the Tree of Life' is a clear conveyance of 
Norse technique forward into the twelfth century (Plate IX, a). However, the 
symbolic simplicity that was the early motive yielded rapidly to ideas of conscious 
decoration the pride of the chisel supplanted the motive of faith. At Barfreston 
(Plate IX, b) the 'Christ' sits in a mass of foliage, evidently copied from some 
conceit of a painter which the carver has been ambitious to copy. We are on a 
boundary, a change of perception is qualifying the ideas of religion the intel- 
lectual demand is asking for something more than the hazy wonder of symbolic 
show. We hear St. Bernard preaching: ' What profit is there in those ridiculous 
monsters, in that marvellous and deformed comeliness, that comely deformity! 
To what purpose are those unclean apes, those fierce lions, those monstrous 
centaurs, those half men, those striped tigers, those fighting knights, those hunters 
winding their horns? Here is a four-footed beast with a serpent's tail, there a 
fish with a beast's head. We are more tempted to read in stone than in books, 
to spend the day wondering at such sights, than in meditating the law of 
God.' ' 

The revolution in religious thought which the founder of the Cistercians 
was preaching was that which launched the great Gothic sculpture. While we 
look at the miracle of Gothic building we must remember that the architecture 
was but the background, the purpose of the stone was exhibited in its sculptural 
speech. Since in the drama of the church lay the exposition of the faith, architec- 
ture achieved the standing free image of stone for its completion. Hitherto 
mediaeval sculpture had been in relief, the decoration of surface ; but with the 
intellectual reformation came the free detached figure, almost simultaneously in 
many parts of Europe, and in England as early as elsewhere. 

By means of this achievement the stone building of Gothic churches was 
enabled to present a reasoned authoritative statement of faith. The great 

1 Quoted from The Mediceval Garner, by G. C. Coulton. 

Plate IX. 

a. Dinton, Buckinghamshire: Tympanum, c. 1125. 4ft. across. 

b. Barfreston, Kent: Tympanum, c. 1175. Figure about 2ft. high. 

Plate X. 

a. York: Statue of Moses, c. 1 175. 
Figure about 8ft. high. 

b. York: Lower part of "Hell Stone", c. 1175. 
Figures about I2in. high. 

c. Wells Cathedral: Statues by North Porch, c. 1240. 


cathedral facades were set up for the purpose of displaying the whole system of 
the Christian theology the end to which creation moved. Eschatology, the 
.doctrine of the last things, may sum up in one word the supreme motive. 
Christ's advent as the Saviour was to lead up to Christ's coming as the Judge; 
to this theme were devoted, in numberless variations but always on a reasoned 
scheme and with full dogmatic intention, thousands of statues, thousands of 
figure-reliefs, tens of thousands of sculptured points and juts of architecture. 
In the west fronts of the twelfth century sets of statues were carved round the 
great doorways, to set forth the natural and spiritual genealogy of Christ. Above 
were ranges of reliefs recounting the Bible histories (see Plates V-VI) and statues 
figuring the army of the saints. Then immediate to the entrances or above 
them, as the centre or finish of the tableaux, were placed the twelve apostles, the 
angels and archangels, the Angel of the Doom parting the good from the bad, 
and 'Christ in Judgement'. 

In England we had these statued fronts at the end of the twelfth century 
on the same scale as at Chartres or Aries. At York, in St. Mary's Museum, 
are some half-dozen statues (Plate X, a) that would seem to have flanked a 
doorhead on which was the relief of the 'Madonna and Child' that was found 
with them : they have no doubt represented the patriarchs and prophets, the 
spiritual ancestors of the Sacred Child. As part of a Judgement sculpture we 
have the 'Hell Stone' lately dug up at York, showing the seven deadly sins 
tormented in Hell (Plate X, b). Such representations have certainly relied on 
the manuscript painting for their ideas. But in expression they show the ferocity 
of Norse handling its constant delight in wriggling devilry, though tempered 
now by intellectual analysis of the causes of lost souls. 

A. D. 1200-1280. 

In the thirteenth century a more humane ideal of the Last Judgement 
appeared with a technique that grew milder and more gracious in sculpture. 
England possesses a most perfect monument of the scheme in the facade of 
Wells, on which nearly 150 ancient statues still stand. The top of this composition 
(with the later additions of the archangels and apostles) gives the Judge- 
ment tableau, exhibited in sets of statues across the facade. Above in the centre 
is the Judge : then are ranged the twelve apostles, the nine orders of angels, 
the dead rising from their tombs. The statues of the saints (Plate X, c) in 
the lower tiers are the most characteristic pieces of our English mediaeval 
figure-work. Their wonderful capacity lies in their perfect architectural 
expression their congruity with the facts of their position. Every detail of 
their handling can be seen to be in the rhythm of the front as it were, 
cadenced to the architecture. As statues there is a serene and quiet dignity 
in their poses and draperies that has seldom been equalled. And also there 


is in many of the latest the peculiar English tenderness ol sculptured feeling, 
an asset that our most national art seldom misses. In the lower part of the front 
were the sculptured reliefs of the Bible story scenes from the Old and New 
Testament of peculiar beauty (see Plates V and VI). 

It will be seen how in such compositions the intellectual expression of theology 
has replaced the symbolic. The cardinal beliefs of the Church were the necessary 
representations in all buildings, and provided the themes which the sculptor 
developed in statues. In the many dramatic situations of such scenes as* the 
Annunciation, the Adoration of the Magi, the Crucifixion and Resurrection, the 
Gothic statuary found his opportunity. The 'Annunciation ' of the Westminster 
Chapter-house (Plate XI, a) is on the inside on either side of the entrance door- 
way, the Virgin to the right, and the angel Gabriel on the left. These figures 
were found by Sir Gilbert Scott hid behind bookcases the room having long 
been used as a library. The Record Office has the account rendered to King 
Henry III for the payment of these statues, but no sculptor is named. 

In the intellectual expression of thirteenth-century sculpture, dogma as well 
as the cardinal incidents of the faith was given representation. At Lincoln 
on either side of the Judgement door were as in many thirteenth-century 
doorways stately figures now headless. That to the right of the doorway holds 
a modelled building she is the ' Church of Christ ', in attitude of command. On 
the opposite side another the right-hand figure in the illustration (Plate XI, b) 
holds the Tables of Law, while from her hand falls a broken staff this latter 
is the ' Synagogue '. The Old Dispensation and the New, together they attend 
the triumph of Christ as He is represented sitting in Judgement on the 
tympanum inside the porch (Plate XI, c). Here was the zenith of English 
mediaeval style. The draperies of these Lincoln figures are executed with 
a monumental directness, and there is, too, in the pose of their figures a monu- 
mental majesty which was never afterwards attained. 

Interesting questions crop up in regard to the technique of some most 
beautiful pieces of this Mid-Gothic sculpture. At Westminster are the angel 
reliefs of the transept too far from the eye to be generally observed from below. 
Apart from the splendid jollity of their presentment which is characteristic of 
later thirteenth-century sculpture, there are some remarkable resemblances to the 
style of ancient statues of 500 B. c. at Athens. The little figures of the Lincoln 
doorway (Plate XI, c) can be seen to have the same suggestion. The filleted 
heads, the handling of the hair, the fine lawn draperies, the modelling of the 
limbs beneath them, suggest a curious resemblance to some early Greek art. 
Some explain this, which is equally evident in French sculpture of this date, on 
the ground that the Crusaders when they sacked Constantinople saw Greek 
statues. Others say that marble figures brought from Rome in the thirteenth 
century gave the style. The difficulty is, however, that they are not the celebrated 

Plate XI. 

a. Westminster Chapel: The Annunciation. 1253. 
Figures about 6ft. 

b. Lincoln: Statue of Angel Choir c. 1270. 
Figures about 6ft. 

c. Lincoln: "Judgment Porch", c. 1270. Small figures about isi 

Plate XII. 

a. Lincoln: "Angel Choir". Angels of Triforium. 0.1270. Figures about 5 ft. 

b. Geddington Cross: Statues of Queen Eleanor. 0.1290. 
Figures about 8 ft. 

c. Exeter: West front. "Warrior & King", c. 1345. 
Figures about 6 ft. 


works of the great masters that seem the model to these mediaeval figures 
such might have been supposed to have survived at Constantinople or at 
Rome but they are the works antecedent to the Phidian age whose simplicities 
seem repeated again in the mediaeval sculpture of 1250. The explanation is that 
as in Greece 500 B.C. so in Paris and London A. D. 1250 sculpture was a growing 
art, fresh with the youth of adventure and expressing itself monumentally : under 
the same conditions it achieved the same expressions. 

More famous than the Westminster 'Angels' because better seen, are those 
of the Angel Choir of Lincoln. If a sort of Pagan irresponsibility enlivens the 
former, the utmost intensity of religious mysticism seems carved into the Lincoln 
reliefs, especially in two or three of the great angels of the western bays. The 
angels of the ' Expulsion ' and of the ' Resurrection ' are too well known for 
illustration here the spiritual instinct of their sculptor is a very remarkable 
one. But there have been apparently four or five others at work on the angel, all 
competent for noble expression of dogmatic theology (Plate XII, a). 

A.D. 1280-1350, 

We pass, however, from the intellectual expression of religious sculpture as 
we open on the fourteenth century. Romance has always been associated with 
the era commemorated by Froissart and the fourteenth-century chroniclers, when, 
as in the ' Morte dArthur ' legend, chivalry and its sentiment were popularized 
for the recreation of knights and ladies. MSS. like Queen Mary's Psalter or 
the Luttrell Psalter, with their wonderful vivid painting, may bring to our eyes 
the colour and pageantry of fourteenth-century style. One form of the romantic 
motive readily appeals to modern taste. The love of Edward I for his Queen 
Eleanor of Castile that 'Queen of good memory, pious, chaste, and compassionate, 
the lover of the English ' was shown in the Eleanor crosses set up at each place 
that her body rested from Lincoln, where she died, to Westminster, where she 
was buried. Of the three remaining that at Geddington (Plate XII, b) has the 
original form ; at Northampton and at Waltham this has been much altered ; but 
the statues of the queen on all three crosses are striking examples of the English 
style c. 1300. 

But Romance is an expression of handling and treatment as well as ol 
motive. This is conspicuous in the architecture of Exeter, where in the sculp- 
ture of the west screen statues of kings and warriors are carved as the ancestors 
of Christ. Here the romance of chivalry has motived religious sculpture, and 
Bible characters appear as kings and knights. Now in the pageant of life, the 
aristocrats of the fourteenth century supplied the liveliest and most brilliant 
scenes. From birth to death the knight and dame lived as a splendid show, and 


their aristocratic glory was not to end with their lives. Fourteenth-century 
sculpture continued it into the tomb, as if the memorial chapel represented 
a permanent palace that gave the image of the deceased its court. 

In England the mediaeval figures of the dead memorial recumbent 
effigies have remained in better preservation than in any other country of 
Europe. There are many special points of interest to the student of history 
and manners as well as of art in this effigy-sculpture, for its reflection of the life 
and sentiment of the Middle Ages was immediate. The coffin-lids of Purbeck 
marble, quarried at Corfe in Dorset, were carved with modelled figures and 
sent all over England, the trade starting in the twelfth century and being con- 
tinued all through the thirteenth. The ' abbots ' of Peterborough, the ' bishops ' 
and 'knights' in the Temple Church like the ' knight '_ which is illustrated 
(Plate XIII, a) from Sandwich were sturdy, vigorous sculptures wrought in 
the hard, dark marble with an expression of power almost Egyptian. Then these 
works of the marblers were copied in the freestones with a freer hand ; earliest, 
I think, by the sculptors of the Wells statues. At Salisbury, for example, 
the Longespee stone ' knight ' has a delicate representation of the recumbent 
attitude, which is an advance on the coffin-lid representation of earlier effigy- 
sculpture. The later marble ecclesiastics, after 1250, such as Archbishop 
de Gray of York, illustrate the dignity of this art at which the marbler worked 
(Plate XIII, b). ' Bishop Bronescombe ' of Exeter, wrought in white stone, has 
an -equally dignified style, and can be seen still in its original painting. 

Space does not allow more than the mention of a few most distinguished 
figures which may represent the course of effigy-art which for a hundred years 
exhibited a surprising wealth of invention. At the end of the thirteenth century 
we enter on its expression of chivalry. The ' Queen Eleanor ' at Westminster 
(Plate XIII, c) was an ideal bronze executed by Master Torel, a goldsmith of 
London. Another form of the romantic effigy can be seen in the ' Knight ' at 
Gloucester a wooden figure faced and painted all over, as were the stone 
figures also. The knights of this type were given a lively cross-legged attitude 
not because they were Crusaders, but because such an attitude was an artistic 
expression of knighthood, as if the subject were ready to fight for the faith. The 
cross-legged presentation was a sculptor's device peculiar to the English school : 
but with this attitude a more composed representation of the warrior appears at 
Westminster (Plate XIII, d) with angels at his head, and his hands folded in 
prayer. At Aldworth he is shown leaning on his shield in the attitude of the 
' dying Gaul'. At Reepham and Ingham in Norfolk we see him laid on a rocky 
couch a true soldier on the field of battle, waiting for the trump that shall 
call him to the Battle of Armageddon. 

Plate XIII. 

a. Sandwich, Kent: Purbeck marble. "Knight". 0.1240. About 7, feet. 

b. York: "Archbishop de Grey ". Purbeck marble tomb. c. 1265. About 8 feet. 

c. Westminster: Cast of bronze effigy of Queen Kleanor. 1292. 

d. Westminster: Caen stone effigy of Crook Back, Earl of Lancaster, c. 1295. 

Plate XIV. 

a. Alabaster "Knight & Lady'' of the fifteenth century. Figures about 7ft. 

b. Canterbury. Alabaster monument of Henry IV. and Queen Joan. 1404. Figures about 7 ft. 

c. Warwick: Bronze figure of Richard Beauchamp. c. 1450. Figure about 6 ft. 

Plate XV. 

a. Beverley Minster: Percy Tomb. 

York shop-style, c. 1340. Figures about 2ft. 6in. 

b. Canterbury: Choir Screen. London shop-style, 
c. 1400. Figures 6ft. 

c. Westminster: Henry Vllth. Chapel. 
London shop-style. 0.1500. Figures 5ft. 

d. Westminster: 

Henry Vllth. Tomb. Bronze. 

Figure 2ft. 

Plate XVI. 

a. Ewelme. Oxon: Alabaster tomb of Duchess of Suffolk, c. 1470. 

b. Stoneyhurst Museum: Alabaster relief. "Adoration of the Magi". 0.1400. 18 in. high. 

Plate XVII. 

a. March, Cambridgshire: Oak roof with Apostles and Angels. 0.1450. 

b. Cambridge: King's College Chapel. Heraldic Sculpture, c. 1480 

Plate XVIII. 



o 1 



















A.D. 1350-1500. 

In the middle of the fourteenth century came the Black Death in which 
perished half of the population of England and in its agony there seems to 
have passed away the romantic characterizations of art that enlivened the first 
part of the fourteenth century. The effigies of the dead in the fifteenth century 
were elaborately represented, and the material of their tomb-sculpture became 
more sumptuous and precious. In the era of the alabaster monument, literal 
representation of costume was carried to the highest pitch. Yet with this 
elaboration and costly material there was a staid conventional art. The 
sculptor gives us, not warriors, but (Plate XIV, a) respectable devotional 
personages lords and kings, knights and ladies, as composedly prayerful as 
the bishop or priest. But these ' bishops ', ' knights ', and ' ladies ' had, I think, 
no intention of individual portraiture ; they were the stock figures of conventional 
taste, though exceptions can be seen in certain of the royal effigies for example, 
on Henry IV's alabaster tomb at Canterbury (Plate XIV, b) his figure, made 
immediately after his death, 1404, was no doubt modelled as a likeness of the 
popular sovereign. It is a note on heredity that his features might be recog- 
nized as a royal likeness to-day. But in the fine martial bronze of the Black 
Prince at Canterbury, thirty years earlier, no resemblance of feature can be 
suspected. His will directs him to be commemorated by 'a man fully armed' 
and so he has been. His figure, in face, attitude, and armour, is just as 
a score of others in alabaster and stone. And the same with the bronze of 
Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, of c. 1450 (Plate XIV, c). The peculiar 
and personal visage would be evidence that this head was a portrait, did we not 
see the same in other memorials, and had we not recorded evidence that the 
bronze was cast many years after Richard Beauchamp's death. Similarly, 
stock portraiture is to be accepted in the alabaster monuments scattered all 
over England, which, defaced and neglected as they often now are, were works 
of fine sculpture, and peculiar to England ; for alabaster is an English commodity, 
quarried in Derbyshire, but conveyed, we think, to London and other cities for 
working by crafts of imagers. The most accomplished of such alabaster monu- 
ments is at Ewelme (Plate XVI, a) the ' Duchess of Suffolk ', that must be 
assigned to the London school. 

Other popular sculptures by imagers were made for placing above altars. 
England was famous for alabaster images, so that we find them ordered for 
the Pope. The material was also specially in demand for the pictures in relief 
of sacred scenes. Retables were in the fifteenth century carved for the Jesus 
and Virgin altars respectively, and often a third set was supplied for the altar of 
the saint to whom the church was dedicated. The production of such pieces was 
continuous, and these alabaster retables, bright with colour and gilding, may be 



taken as the representative English sculpture of the fifteenth century. They 
have been carried all over the Continent, and are still to be seen in churches 
and museums in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Iceland, Spain, and in large numbers 
in France some just as they were supplied from the English shops four and 
five hundred years ago. What sort of sculpture appeared in these tables can 
be judged from the ' Adoration of the Magi ' (illustrated on Plate XVI, b). 
Fifteenth-century art has become anecdotal in these tables. Sculpture is now 
narrative and based on literary suggestion. It attempts the story, not the faith, 
of the Bible, with all the legendary and apocryphal detail of each scene crowded 
into the relief. So we find in the bosses of the fifteenth-century vaults, as 
especially at Norwich, where there are over a thousand of such little figure- 

The shift of sculptural style becomes evident when fifteenth-century sculpture 
was no longer expressing that great architectural creation which had reached its 
zenith at Wells, Westminster, and Lincoln, and the power of which still lingered 
up to 1350 in the Exeter statues. After the Black Death, mediaeval statue-work 
in England was a shop-production, that is, a matter of addition to building, not, 
as it had been, the essence of architecture. The statue lost its monumental 
simplicity, as it gained in imitative intention. This was to be seen already in 
the fourteenth century in such furniture pieces as the Percy Tomb at Beverley 
(Plate XV, a), the work of a York shop, c. 1340. During the 150 years which 
followed the images sent out for the niches of screens were respectable ' kings ' 
and 'saints' of good style and correct mien, as in the Canterbury screen 
(Plate XV, b) or Henry V's Chapel at Westminster but they have missed the 
nobility of thirteenth-century modelling, and are without the romantic touch of 
fourteenth-century style. The shop-statues were now the matter of course, and 
supplied in quantity for the grand manner that the dignity of royal chapels 
demanded. The array of them in Henry VII's Chapel (Plate XV, c) is a gallery 
of conventional types. English traditions survived beside the introduced 
Renaissance of Henry VIII's Italian sculptor, as can be seen in the charming 
little statues of the bronze screen (Plate XV, d). 

Such was the last word of the English mediaeval statue. But besides all 
this image-work there was a larger architectural sculpture which should be 
noticed, because the expression of fifteenth-century conditions gave it a special 
vigour. The great building of parish churches, that was a peculiarly English 
building, developed a decorative figure-work, notably in the great hammer-beam 
oak roofs that are the characteristic creations of the English carpenter. For 
example, in the Norfolk churches, as at March (Plate XVII, a), the angels of the 
ceiling are set in ranks thrice repeated, their fluttering wings so far outstretched 
that from principal to principal they almost touch, so that the celestial throng 
seems to fill the air. And if angels inside, so devils outside were the popular 


fifteenth-century sculptures of the parish churches. Especially in the West of 
England was a bold carving of gargoyles the hobgoblin fancies which the 
country-side mason was always ready to improvise from the types of ale-house 
concourse. Such was the sculpture for the people, a sort of religious heraldry 
suited to simple beliefs still warm and natural in expression ; while for great 
lords and royalties there was the armorial heraldry, the tradition of grand style, 
as at King's College Chapel, Cambridge (PI. XVII, b), accomplished, con- 
ventional, cold. 

However, the most peculiar and interesting pieces in late mediaeval work 
are those of the wood-carver on the benches and misericords, or brackets under 
the choir seats (Plate XVIII). The anecdotal absorption of fifteenth-century 
sculpture can be appreciated in these little subjects of the wood-carver. They 
are seldom taken from the Bible, or only because the motive makes amusing 
anecdote, as 'Samson with the gates of Gaza', or 'Jonah and the whale' at 
Ripon. What the carver of misericords aimed at was to be entertaining, and 
he borrowed from every kind of literary source ; from Romance, as in the 
story of Alexander the Great carried to heaven by griffins ; from moral 
treatise, as in the strange tale of the tiger and the hunters, who, stealing her 
cubs, throw a mirror in her path to stop her for looking at herself she forgets 
her losses. This is an anecdotal morality to warn us how the Devil steals away 
our virtues and throws a mirror to us to cajole us into forgetting our degrada- 
tion. Such story-telling based on the fantastic natural history of the Bestiaries, 
and dealing with all kinds of animals and monsters, can be seen carved in 
a thousand forms on the English misericords (Plate XVIII, a). Their method 
was applied all round. The fox in a friar's cowl preaching to the geese is 
another characteristic example of mediaeval chaff. So we have the Oxford 
dignitaries caricatured (Plate XVIII, b), as well as the pure genre of all social 
and domestic scenes, the works of the field, and the humours of village life. 
Thus to the end the figure-work of English churches was immediately reflective 
of reality. It was never a pose of art, or worked with any consciousness that 
a style could be dedicated to religion and be stamped with formalism to become 
a fetish. What people thought and did, that mediaeval sculpture carved, for the 
reason that to the mediaeval perception life was faith. 

K 2 

Plate XIX. 

Westminster Abbey: panel from Retable. 
From a Water Colour Copy by E. W. Tristram. 




. 'rofessof 




WE all have a general idea of the place of painting and its development in 
Italy during the Middle Ages. We know how it derived its traditions from the 
Byzantine school, and how in the thirteenth century the art took on a more 
national type. The same phenomena were common all over Europe, in France, 
Germany, England, and Spain. Good cause might be shown for giving German 
and Lombard art the first place from the ninth to the twelfth century, and 
French art in the thirteenth. It seems to have been the fusion of the native 
Byzantine traditions of Italy with the ' Gothic ' spirit of France which led up to 
the new departure in Italian painting and sculpture made by Giotto and Pisano. 

The development of painting and sculpture in England was parallel to, and 
closely associated with, the arts of France. In the twelfth, thirteenth, and four- 
teenth centuries we had schools of art of the same kind as those of France 
and Italy. In the painting of books some think that at one time we led the 

The mediaeval painters of the several art centres as London formed a 
craft and fraternity exactly as did those of Italy. In the earlier time, say before 
the thirteenth century, most of them were in the monasteries, but during the 
thirteenth century the lay element was much increased, and probably most of 
the painters from this time kept shops. 

Of course there was practically only one art of painting, the art which to-day 
in a degraded form is represented by the house-painter and decorator. 1 The 
painting of books and glass soon split off into separate crafts, and some painters 
perhaps specialized in heraldry, but generally speaking a painter was a house 
and church decorator, deriving his traditions from what had been the similar 
state of affairs in Greece and Rome. The idea of artist and non-artist in the 
crafts of painting had not been born. 

In England at the end of the thirteenth century we had brother craftsmen 
of Duccio, Cimabue, and Giotto. The great difference between later Italian 
painting and English painting is this : in Italy primitive art passed by continuous 
development into Renaissance painting. In England there came about the great 

' It has been said that the late Professor Legros wished to be called a ' house-painter ' on his tomb. 


disruption caused by the repudiation of national art in favour of copying the 
developed art of Italy, which had been rapidly changed owing to her artists 
realizing that she occupied Roman ground, and that by copying the old in- 
digenous classic art they might claim a special culture. Vasari's narrative is 
continuous from the Byzantines to the semi-moderns ; of England I have heard 
an academician say' there was no painting before Hogarth '. Thus have our 
traditions been forgotten and flouted, but probably any deeper national power in 
art will require as a basis some sense of continuity and nationality. 

The most brilliant period of English art was the second half of the thirteenth 
century, and its chief centre was Westminster, where, under the patronage of 
Henry III, a great concourse of artists gathered from all parts of Europe to assist 
in the works which that king was always undertaking at Westminster and at his 
other palaces. The four most famous painters during the last years of the 
king's life were William of Florence, John of St. Omer, Peter of Hispania, and 
William of Westminster. The first was probably an Italian, the second a 
Frenchman, and the third a Spaniard. The fourth was a monk and ' the king's 
beloved painter'. I have before suggested that the noble wall-painting in 
St. Faith's Chapel at the Abbey (which would be a famous picture if it were in the 
vestry of Sta Croce instead of in that of a London church) may be his work ; it 
was certainly painted about 1270, and by the side of it is a praying monk, 
doubtless a portrait of the artist. 

A second wonderful work painted about the same time is the retable, a 
decorative panelled picture, long and low, now preserved in Jerusalem Chamber. 
It has been very much injured, but its whole character can easily be made out. 
Mr. Tristram, who has during several years studied these Westminster paintings, 
has made a copy of one of the panels, which he allows us to reproduce. It will 
be described more fully in his notes given below. In a short account of these 
paintings written some years ago I suggested that this retable was wrought by 
Master Walter of Durham, who decorated the celebrated Painted Chamber in the 
palace. Our second reproduction is from another of Mr. Tristram's drawings, 
which represents the head of a much decayed figure of Edward the Confessor 
on the back of the sedilia in the Choir of the church, which Mr. Tristram has 
made out with much skill and patience. By the generosity of Mr. Yates 
Thompson a record of this fine figure, of the full size, has been woven in tapestry 
by Messrs. Morris & Co. and given to the church. 

The painted sedilia were made in 1308. As at this time Master Thomas the 
Painter, son of Master Walter, who seems to have succeeded his father as king's 
painter, was at work at the palace we may tentatively assign the work to him. 
In 1307-8 Master Thomas of Westminster was engaged in repairing defects in 
' divers ystories ' in the Camera depicta and other chambers and chapels for 264 
days at 6d. a day. He was assisted by about a dozen others, amongst whom we 


find the names of William of Sudbury, Simon of Bradstrete [London], John of 
Bristol, and Simon dc Bordeaux. 

The London painters mostly lived in the Cripplcgatc district Red Cross 
Street, White Cross Street, Bread Street, Wood Street, &c., and they had their 
guild in St. Giles's Church. A certificate of guilds in 1389 at the Public Record 
Office (No. 463), headed ' Peyntres de Loundres ', runs : ' These arc the points 
which the honest men of the mestier of painters in honour of God and of his 
mother and St. Luke the Evangelist have ordained at the Church of St. Giles 
outside Cripplegate of London. . . . They shall each pay get. for maintaining a 
perpetual lamp before the images of our Lady and of St. Luke,' &c. Another 
document (Certificate of Guilds 205) contains a statement of the affairs of the 
Fraternity of Our Lady and St. Giles. This mentions a holding of Master Hugh 
the Painter in the parish. This was Master Hugh of St. Albans, a famous painter 
of the second half of the fourteenth century, who worked at St. Stephen's Chapel, 

This Master Hugh in 1361 made his will which was proved in 1368. In it 
he desired to be buried in St. Giles, Cripplegate, and made a bequest to ' the 
painter's light ' in St. Mary's Chapel. All his implements and colours were to 
be sold. His mansion house, with all vessels of silver, brass, &c., he left to his 
wife Agnes, and 205. to one undertaking a pilgrimage to Canterbury with naked 
feet, and offering a penny there on his behalf. He also made a bequest to the 
hermits of London, and further left to his wife unam tabulam de VII peces de 
Lumbardy, which cost /2o irrespective of its case. It may be mentioned that 
the influence of North Italian painting certainly was felt in England in the 
second half of the fourteenth century. In this record we seem to have one 
example of the means by which this was brought about. 

Most of the painters working at Westminster were doubtless, like Master 
Hugh, the settled craftsmen of London. An important family of painters during 
the fourteenth century was that of the Stockwells. In the accounts for the 
works at the Painted Chamber in the royal palace for the years 1292-4, the 
name of Richard de Stokwell appears working under Master Walter, and 
receiving 6d. a day. In 1336 the wife of John de Stokwell, painter, died, leaving 
a house then held by Richard de Stokwell in the Parish of St. Giles. This is 
probably a second Richard. In the year 1338 he was one of the eight ' best 
men ' of his Ward of Cripplegate, appointed to ' patrol the city day and night to 
preserve the King's Peace'. In 1349 Richard died, leaving to his son Hugh 
tenements in Red Cross Street [Cripplegate], and to his wife his ' mansion 
house '. Hugh died only a day or two after it was the year of the terrible 
Black Death and his will was proved the next before his father's. In the next 
year the will of Walter de Stokwell was proved. In it he expressed a desire to 
be buried in St. Giles, Cripplegate, and left to it various bequests, including 


a gilt pall to be used at his own and subsequent funerals, and to the Rood of 
St. Mary ten shillings. Also to the Altar de pidoribus an entire vestment with 
cope worth 1005. To his wife he devised his house in White Cross Street 
[Cripplegate], he released his apprentice Thomas of the residue of his term of 
service, and he left 60 gold scudi [Italian influence again] for a pilgrim to visit the 
Holy Land for the good of his soul. He was evidently a man of good fortune. 

Another painter, Gilbert Prynce, died in 1396, leaving instructions that he 
was to be buried in St. Giles's Church. His house in this parish contained a hall, 
chamber, pantry, butlery, and kitchen ; the hall was hung with a large dorser of 
Worstede embroidered. Clearly it was a pleasant place. 

From these wills of London painters we get sufficient evidence to show that 
from the thirteenth century members of the craft were in the habit of living in 
the Parish of St. Giles, and that they belonged to a guild of painters who met 
in that church. 

In 1467 the ordinances of the Mistery of Painters were confirmed by the 
Court of Aldermen. They were authorized to assemble in some honest place 
and to elect two true and witty men free of the craft as wardens, and six 
assistants to help search for bad goods. Neglect of the brethren to meet in 
Common Hall was punished by a fine of a pound of wax, to be divided between 
the Guildhall Chapel and the light of St. Luke (which we have seen was in 
St. Giles's Church). The rules provide for methods of workmanship, especially 
in regard to the use of gold and tinfoil ; the latter was to be wrought with oil 
colours. Only fine gold was to be used for work of ' entail '. ' No manner of 
signs hanging or standing in the weather ' were to be wrought with fine gold. In 
a list of guilds of 1469, painters and stainers are given separately; in a list of 
1485 the latter are not mentioned, but in 1502-3 the painter-stainers appear 
together. In this year the livery numbered eighteen (W. C. Hazlitt, Livery 
Companies). Doubtless the original meeting-place of the Mistery was near 
Cripplegate. In 1531-2 the house of Sir John Browne in Little Trinity Lane 
who was made Sergeant Painter to Henry VIII in 1511 came into the posses- 
sion of the craft, and here they met from this time. At Painters' Hall a portrait 
of Sir John Browne is preserved, which forms an important link between the 
old and the new. 

Plate XX. 

Head of St. Edward the Confessor. From the Sedilia, Westminster Abbey. 
From a Watei Colour Copy by E W. Tristram. 



! adorn 

lint P. 
if paii: 

olis in 

urc of 

it hand 
The univ- 


with i 


ter : the second 

remains on tli- 

: ive i '! 

1 nt two-third* 




The retablc of the high altar of Henry Ill's time, which is 'clearly a work 
made about 1270 ', measures eleven feet in length and about three feet in height, 
and is separated into five divisions by vertical moulded strips. These strips are 
made to resemble rich metal-work by being gilt, and adorned with imitation 
gems and enamel, and with small heads in relief, modelled in gesso, placed at 
intervals on oval shapes of coloured glass. Enamel is imitated by painting 
patterns on the gold in bright colours, thin lines of gold being left to resemble 
cloisons, and overlaying the whole with transparent glass. The outer divisions 
of the retable are occupied by single canopies, gilt and adorned with a kind of 
glass mosaic. The canopy on the dexter side shelters a painting of Saint Peter 
holding the keys and clothed in a tunic and mantle. No trace of painting 
remains in the corresponding division on the sinister side. 

The centre division is occupied by a triple canopy, which is again decorated 
with gold and glass mosaic. The clustered columns supporting the canopy 
are enriched over the gold with a painted pattern in black of fleurs-de-lis in 
diamonds, and another of eagles and lions in circles with diamonds containing 
fleurs-de-lis and dragons set between. In the centre is a painted figure of 
Christ in majesty. He is clothed in a rose-coloured tunic and green mantle 
edged with a fine golden pattern. Barefooted, and with His right hand raised 
in the act of blessing, He supports with His left the universe. The universe is 
no more than an inch in diameter, and is a wonder of minute painting. On it 
are depicted fishes in the sea, beasts and trees on the land, whilst a golden sky 
is flecked with light clouds and flying birds. On the dexter side of the Majesty 
is a figure of the Virgin clad in green tunic and rose mantle, holding in her left 
hand a palm branch, and pointing upwards with her right. On the sinister side 
is Saint John, also with a palm branch in his right hand, and holding a book 
with his left. The divisions on either side of the centre are filled with four star- 
shaped panels. The spaces between these panels have a ground of deep blue 
glass painted over with a trailing pattern of vine in gold, and the divisions are 
moulded and again made to resemble richly jewelled gold work and cloisonne" 
enamel with quatrefoil bosses at the crossings. All traces of painting have 
disappeared from the panels on the sinister side, but on three of the four 
panels on the dexter side are represented miracles. The first is the Healing of 
Jairus's daughter : the second is the Restoring Sight to the blind man. Only a 
fragment of colour remains on the third, but on the fourth is painted the miracle 
of Feeding the Five Thousand, which is perhaps the best preserved of them 
all. It is reproduced about two-thirds full size in Plate XIX. Christ is depicted 



surrounded by the apostles, offering a loaf to a clamouring crowd, whilst one of 
the apostles stands by, holding loaves and fishes in his arms. 

The ground is of oaken boards laid horizontally, with parchment strips placed 
over the joints, and the whole covered with gesso about one-sixteenth of an inch 
deep. This use of parchment appears to have had fatal results, because by 
contracting it has caused the gesso at the joints to become detached. The 
background to the figures is gilt, and tooled with an incised pattern of lozenges 
and spots, but, unlike the Italian method, no bole is laid on the gesso'as a 
preparation for the gold leaf. The painting has the appearance of being done 
in true egg tempera, and with extraordinary skill in handling. The colours are 
exquisitely modelled, which is a process much more difficult in tempera than in 
oil, owing to the egg medium drying or setting very rapidly. The colours are 
all pure and bright. Shades of green are used, contrasting with reds varying 
from rose to vermilion. The whole is kept fair by white fur linings to the 
drapery, and further brightened by fine patterned borders in gold. With warm 
flesh tints and the tooled and glittering background of gold, it forms a wonder- 
fully rich and beautiful colour scheme. 

These paintings are undoubtedly the finest of the thirteenth century in 
England. They belong to the great period of English painting when it was 
freed from Byzantine restraint and had become infused with new life but still 
remained monumental in character. The position the retable occupied on the 
high altar ensured its being of the very finest workmanship it was possible to 
procure, and the absolute certainty in the execution and the amazing power of 
expression clearly show the hand of a great master. 

The head represented on Plate XX is the most perfect portion that remains 
of a painting of Saint Edward the Confessor on the back of the sedilia at West- 
minster Abbey, which were erected in 1308 over the tomb of King Sebert. The 
figure is very nearly eight feet high, and represents the Saint holding a ring which 
he is offering to Saint John the Evangelist, who was painted on the adjacent 
panel. Here, however, all traces of painting have completely disappeared. 
Unfortunately very little remains of the figure of Saint Edward, but with extreme 
care it is possible to find traces of the whole of the painting and to obtain a clear 
idea of what it must have been. He is clothed in a green tunic and a mantle of 
rose colour lined with vair. His hands are gloved : in his left he bears a sceptre 
and on his head a crown. Both sceptre and crown and also the patterned nimbusare 
in gold. The ground upon which he stands seems to have been a field of flowers. 
The head with its grey locks and flowing beard is kingly and dignified. It is 
less than half full size in the plate, the original being fifteen inches across the 
nimbus. Saint Edward is said to have been an albino, and it is quite possible 
that it was the intention of the painter to represent him as such here. On the 
front of the sedilia are corresponding paintings of two other kings, but these, 


although very much better preserved, were varnished about a hundred years ago. 
The varnish has become brown and obscured the colour and quality of the 
painting. Fortunately the figure of Saint Edward was left untouched, and in 
consequence one can see that the colours, although painted solidly, were fair and 
clear. When cleaned of the dust which obscures the painting there appears to 
be a slight glaze as though of varnish, which is quite possible, since varnish is 
frequently mentioned in the records amongst the materials bought for the 
painters. As in the case of the retable the paintings were probably done in the 
manner of true egg tempera, and the ground which consists of boards is covered 
with a very thin coat of gesso. 

L 2 

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THE portrait of Keppel which is represented in the photogravure accompany- 
ing this volume depicts him at the age of twenty-four as a Commodore ; and was 
the work of Reynolds at the age of twenty-seven, while he was still unknown, 
and while he was on his way to Rome to attain ' the height of his wishes ', the 
study of the Italian Masters. It was formerly the property of that branch of the 
Keppel family which derives from the Bishop of Exeter, Keppel's brother ; and, 
as the Bishop married Laura Walpole, a grand-daughter of Sir Robert Walpole 
and a niece of Horace Walpole, it was probably known to the Walpoles, and for 
this association alone, quite apart from its interest as registering a stage hitherto 
obscure in Reynolds's art, merits a place in a publication of the Walpole Society. 
It was sold at Christie's last June, was bought by Mr. Shepherd of King 
Street, and is now the property of Mr. Robinson of Old Buckenham Hall, 
Norfolk, where it hangs not far from Elveden Hall, the former home of Keppel 

In Christie's catalogue the picture was not assigned to any painter. The 
inscription which can be seen at the bottom left-hand corner of the photo- 
gravure, and which assigns the picture to ' Renolds ' (sic) ' 1749 ', was at that 
time overlaid with surface grime, and though the date 1749 was visible on 
minute inspection, the picture was hung so high at Christie's that the figures 
escaped the attention of most, if not of all but one. They certainly were not 
seen by Mr. Shepherd or by me. But the dare-devil spirit of the figure and its 
air of romantic chivalry suggested the hand of a master probably Reynolds. 
Other considerations, which are summarized below, pointed to Reynolds and 
served to confirm, if confirmation were necessary, the evidence of the inscription. 

(i) The figure is obviously younger than that of the picture by Reynolds 
of Keppel on the seashore now in the possession of Lord Rosebery. This, 
which is known to have launched Reynolds successfully into the world of 
fashion, was admittedly painted in 1752 after Reynolds's return from Rome. 
The figure of the photogravure is slim ; that of the 1752 picture shows the stout- 
ness which grew steadily as Keppel grew older, and is as steadily recorded with 
cruel fidelity in Reynolds's portraits. 

From this it would seem that the picture must have been painted a year 
or two before 1752. 


(2) The other limit of date for the picture is fixed by the uniform. Before 
1748 there was no uniform general through the Navy. Officers seem to have 
dressed as they pleased. For example, at the taking of Payta by Anson in 
1741, during his voyage round the world in the Centurion, it is narrated of 
Keppel, who was on board, that ' one side of the peak ' of his ' jockey cap ' ' was 
shaved off close to his temple by a ball'. In 1747 experiments were tried 
with a uniform, but this was 'gray faced with red '. It was not till April 1748 
that the blue uniform with white facings (said to be based on a riding-habit 
of the Duchess of Bedford which caught the King's eye and fancy), such as 
appears in the 1749 portrait, was adopted and became obligatory. 

As regards the rank indicated by the uniform it is difficult, if not impossible, 
to discover any book which deals with the point, and comparison between 
the uniform of the picture and the uniforms exhibited at the United Service 
Institution Museum shows that either the Museum or the picture is wrong ; 
for the picture's uniform is an amalgam of the Museum uniforms of captains 
of less than three years' standing on the one hand, and more than three years' 
on the other hand. Assuming that the senior captain might incorporate points 
from the junior captain's uniform, but not vice versa, then, as Keppel became 
a post-captain on December 15, 1745, the picture was painted after December 
15, 1748. 

(3) In 1749 Keppel left England for Algiers to bring the Dey of Algiers 
to book for outrages done by Algerian pirates to English vessels. His squadron 
numbered seven ships. His own boat was the Centurion, in which he had 
sailed round the world with Anson. The Centurion sprang both her topmasts 
and put into Plymouth for repairs. Here Keppel called on Lord Mount 
Edgcumbe and met Reynolds, whose reputation at that time was limited to 
Plymouth. Reynolds was anxious to study the great masters at Rome, and 
Keppel, always anxious to please, offered him a passage to the Mediterranean. 
They set sail on May u, and reached the Bay of Algiers on June 29. Here is 
an extract from a letter which Reynolds wrote from Rome about the voyage to 
Lord Mount Edgcumbe : 

' I have been at Lisbon, Cadiz, Gibraltar, Algiers and Mahon. . . . Your 
Lordship will excuse me if I say that, from the kind treatment and great 
civilities I have received from the Commodore, I fear I have laid your Lord- 
ship under obligations to him on my account; since from nothing but your 
Lordship's recommendation, I could possibly expect to meet with that polite 
behaviour with which I have always been treated. I had the use of his 
cabin, and his study of books, as if they had been my own ; and when he 
went on shore he generally took me with him : so that I not only had an 
opportunity of seeing a great deal, but I saw it with all the advantages as 
if I had travelled as his equal.' 

Here, then, at one stage in the critical period 1748-51, we find Keppel in 


the company of just the artist capable of painting the picture, and as Keppel was 
at sea on his Algerian mission from April 1749 till July 1751, it will be seen that 
not only was Reynolds the right artist but also the only artist during this 
portion of the critical period that had the opportunity of painting him. 

(4) When Keppel reached the Bay of Algiers in June 1749, the Dey saluted 
him with twenty-one guns. Keppel replied. Unfortunately the last gun of the 
salute was by accident loaded with shot. The Dcy made the most of this, as 
the following extract from a letter of his shows : 

'The custom ever was here, upon the arrival of any of His Majesty's 
ships, that our castles welcomed every such with twenty-one guns. We ordered 
the same to be fired for you, on your anchoring in the Bay, which was 
accordingly done. We expected you would have complied with custom on your 
side. Instead of which twenty guns were fired from the ship you were on 
board of with powder only, and one gun, the very last, with a shot, which 
added to the red flag you wear on your main-topmast head, we look upon 
as a mark of your being on no good design but rather threatening us with 
War and Blood.' 

Now in the picture seven ships may be seen in the background. The 
largest ship is firing a shot and flying a red pennant. Is this merely a conven- 
tional setting, or is it more than a coincidence that this background should 
exactly describe an incident which took place when Reynolds was on board 
ship, and which is bound to have impressed itself on his memory as a most 
unfortunate prelude to a difficult mission ? 

(5) The day after his arrival in the Bay, the Commodore interviewed the 
Dcy, and the meeting is thus recorded in Northcotc's Life of Reynolds : 

' Commodore Keppel, having proceeded with his squadron to Algiers, 
anchored in the Bay directly opposite to and within gunshot of the palace ; and 
then went on shore, accompanied by his captain and attended only by his 
barge's crew. On his arrival at the palace he demanded an audience, and on 
his admission to the divan, laid open his embassy, requiring at the same time, 
in the name of his sovereign, ample satisfaction for the injuries done to the 
British nation. Surprised at the ooldness of his remonstrances, and enraged 
at his demands for justice, the Dey, despising his apparent youth, for he 
was then only four and twenty, exclaimed that he wondered at the insolence of 
the King of Great Britain in sending him an insignificant beardless boy. 

' On this the youthful but spirited Commodore replied, " Had my master 
supposed that wisdom was measured by the length of the beard, he would have 
sent your Deyship a he-goat." The tyrant, unused to such language from the 
sycophants of his own court, was so enraged that he ordered his mutes to 
advance with the bowstring, at the same time telling the Commodore that he 
should pay for his audacity with his life. The Commodore listened to this 
menace with the utmost calmness, and being near to a window which looked 
out on the Bay directed the attention of the African chief to the squadron there 


at anchor, telling him that if it was his pleasure to put him to death, there were 
Englishmen enough on board to make him a glorious funeral pile. The Dey 
cooled a little at this hint and was wise enough to permit the Commodore to 
depart in safety/ 

Although the Commodore's journal makes no mention of this story, one 
cannot but feel as one looks at the picture that figure and story fit. It is just as 
if the painter were obsessed with the idea ' Set a pirate to catch a pirate '. And 
it is not a little singular that the cock of the head in this picture is reminiscent 
of the picture in the National Portrait Gallery of Rajah Brooke, privateer 
suppressor of Borneo pirates. 

(6) The pose of the figure is in the Hudsonian manner hat on head, right 
hand Napoleonwise in waistcoat, left hand on stick to get hands and hat out of 
the painter's way. Further there are no deep shadows on the face. All this is 
in keeping with Reynolds's work before 1750, when he had not yet learned to 
emancipate himself under the guidance of the Italian masters from his old 
master Hudson, and had not discovered from the Venetians the use of deep 
shadows for the features. 

All these indications appeared to establish a strong presumption, though 
not conclusive proof, of Reynolds's hand. On the day on which the picture was 
sold I mentioned them to Mr. Shepherd, the purchaser, as pointing to Reynolds 
as the author, and 1749 as the date of the picture. As regarded the painter, 
Mr. Shepherd on aesthetic grounds had already arrived at the same conclusion, 
and as regards the date came into line a few days after, when a well-known 
connoisseur of pictures in Norfolk informed him that while the picture was at 
Christie's he had seen on it the figures 1749. Subsequent cleaning revealed 
the ascription to ' Renolds ' (stc). Even if this ascription to Reynolds is eliminated 
from consideration on the ground that the misspelling shows that it was not put 
there by Reynolds himself, the mere date is sufficient proof of the authorship. 
In 1749 the old style obtained, and under that style the year did not begin till 
March 25. As Keppel was at sea from April 25, 1749, till the end of 1749 
(Old Style March 24, 1749) either the picture was painted by some unknown 
artist in the month March 25-April 25, or by Reynolds, who was in touch with 
him from May n to December, 1749, when Reynolds left for Rome. As 
between these two alternatives there can be no doubt that the latter must be 

On looking at this portrait and comparing it with others by Reynolds of 
Keppel, one cannot but feel that it is the most natural of them all, and that 
whereas the others may depict more truly the spirit of the office which Keppel 
may have held at the time or of the emergency which he may have had to face, 
this goes more home to the heart of the man. Like others who have borne 
his name, both before and after him, Keppel owed advancement to a rare charm 


of manner, to loyalty as protege, friend, and patron, to a daring that sprang 
from high animal spirits, and to a steady energy which supported and animated 
routine. With these special qualities of charm, loyalty, courage, and fire, the 
officer in the picture is dominated. And the picture makes it easy to understand 
how this young man of twenty-four came to be chosen for the task of tackling 
pirates, which required courage and diplomacy, and for the Commandership-in- 
Chief of the Mediterranean at a time when there had been considerable friction 
between men-of-war and the land forces at the naval base of Minorca. Keppel, 
in fact, was an amphibious fighter a man who did best when he had fighting to 
do, and at the same time had to keep things going smoothly between land and 
sea. Hence his success in his negotiations between Minorca and Algiers, 
between General Braddock and the fleet in America, between Pocock's fleet 
and the land forces at the Havannah, and between the Tories as represented 
by Palliser, his second-in-command in 1778, and the Whigs as represented by 
himself, although the failure of Palliser to co-operate with him brought about 
the failure to convert his indecisive engagement into a victory. This charm, 
hit off by Reynolds so happily in 1749, is missing in the other later portraits, 
though they are magnificently characteristic of the naval officer at sundry 
epochs of an officer's career. 

There is a violent contrast between this picture and Lord Rosebery's 
Reynolds of 1752. The 1749 picture is instinct with the cavalier spirit of 
England. It might be taken to represent a cavalier in commodore's uniform 
turned Robin Hood or Dick Turpin. Though the figure is standing, so buoyant 
is it that it might represent a man on horseback moving at the trot. One would 
expect a nodding plume in the three-cornered hat. The 1752 picture represents 
Keppel, bareheaded, on the sea-shore superintending his crew after the wreck of 
his ship in pursuing a French boat too far in shore. Reynolds is said to have 
taken the pose of the body from a statue of Apollo. It is not perhaps extra- 
vagant to speculate that by an act of imaginative insight Reynolds identified 
the statue with the figure of Apollo at the opening of the Iliad coming down 
like night from the heights of heaven to the sea-shore and letting fly his arrows 
at the Greek ship. In a statue Apollo would be holding his bow in his left 
hand after his shot, with left foot forward, while his right hand would go to his 
side for another arrow from his quiver. As Keppel is pointing to direct his 
men, Reynolds has reversed the hands. The right hand is extended, while the 
left steadies the sword at Keppel's side. But all the energy of the Apollo of 
Homer is there, and with the tossing sea behind him Keppel looks as if he 
were propelled from earth by the elemental force of wind and water. 

Among other well-known pictures by Reynolds of Keppel the following 
deserve mention : That of 1760, known, like the picture of 1752, by an engraving 
of Fisher. It was painted the year after Quiberon Bay, in which Keppel in 



Boscawen's old boat, the Torbay, had a hand in the sinking of the The'see, 
and the year before his capture of Belle Isle. One of these pictures belongs to 
Viscount Falmouth, the other to the Duke of Bedford. These pictures show a 
gallant upstanding captain suggesting by his mingled charm and courage that 
the brave have the fascination to win the fair. An interesting grisaille of Keppel's 
head by Reynolds which belongs to Lord Aberdare seems to have been painted 
about this time. 

The picture of 1778, well known through Doughty's magnificent engraving, 
gives Keppel in command of the squadron that was to intercept and crush the 
French fleet, but which could not bring the French to a decisive engagement. 
This conveys to an extraordinary degree the idea of a watchdog sea-dog. The 
original belongs to Sir John Ramsden and hangs at Bulstrode Park a legacy 
probably from Lord Rockingham, Keppel's friend, possibly from Mr. Weddell, 
one of Keppel's party. A duplicate belongs to Baroness Burton. 

The portrait in the National Gallery was given to Erskine, who defended 
Keppel at his trial after this indecisive action. Keppel is holding up his sword 
so ostentatiously that one cannot but think that it represents the scene in which 
the court martial returned him his sword, and that it epitomizes the words which 
Fox afterwards used of Keppel in the House of Commons in 1781, and which were 
engraved on the box containing the freedom given him by the City of London 
in 1779: 


This picture was hung last year close to that of Lord Heathfield, who was with 
Keppel at the reduction of the Havannah, and who was holding Gibraltar at 
the time when Keppel, as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1782, obtained the 
order for its relief. The picture of Keppel holding the order was discovered by 
Mr. Algernon Graves at St. James's Palace, where it was ascribed to Admiral 
Barrington. It represents Keppel looking very old, with compressed lips, and 
eyes alive with expectancy. 

The portrait in the National Portrait Gallery given to Dunning, Keppel's 
counsel, shows Keppel resting on his sword looking proudly but angrily askance, 
as if, according to a contemporaneous account of his appearance after his acquittal, 
he were half triumphant and half apprehensive of the injury that might accrue 
to his country if the malevolence of a man's political enemies again had free 

A third ' trial ' portrait given to Lee, another of Keppel's counsel, is 
known by J. Scott's engraving. Keppel wears a kindly dignified expression as 
if listening attentively to the reading of the verdict of acquittal. 

An admirable picture of Keppel by Reynolds which is a duplicate of one of 


the trial portraits apparently of that given to Lee is in the possession of Lord 
Fitzhardinge and hangs at Cranford House, Hounslow. 

A fourth trial portrait was exhibited at the last Winter Exhibition of the 
Academy by Mr. George Fitzwilliam. This portrait belonged to Burke. It is 
less imposing but more natural than the other three. The fifth trial portrait, 
which Keppel gave to his brother Lord Albemarle, now belongs to Lord Iveagh. 

To the Exhibition of Old English Masters held in Berlin, 1908, H.R.H. Prince 
Frederick Charles of Hesse sent an unfinished portrait of Keppel by Reynolds. 
A photograph of this portrait shows a head and shoulders the head splendidly 
modelled and wearing a countenance of stern commandment. Details of the 
dress are not shown, and only the outlines of the arms are given. It is evident 
from the likeness of the features, and from the pose of head, body, and arms, that 
this picture is the prototype of the trial portraits, and, so far as can be judged 
from a photograph, nobler and more plastic even than its more finished dupli- 

From the portrait of 1749 one may see that Reynolds was a great artist 
even before he went to Rome, and that although most men of genius are said to 
require a year or two abroad before they are thirty for the quickening and full 
development of their genius, Reynolds had genius enough without going to Rome. 
No doubt he learned much from communion with the spirits of the dead speaking 
to him from their canvases at Rome ; no doubt too his constant association, night 
after night in the season, day after day in his studio, with the best men and 
women of his time enabled him to replenish his almost unlimited capacity for 
assimilating the points of view of the best people and for fixing them on his 
canvas. But granting that he got the trick of arresting a gesture from Garrick, 
of seizing on an anecdote from Boswell, of registering history from Gibbon, and 
pomp from Johnson, one turns back to the portrait of 1749 to find the giaour 
charm which is the legacy that Reynolds has left of the hospitality of Keppel at 
sea during Reynolds's few months on board the Centurion before he had been 
paganized by Rome, Johnsonized by the Literary Club, and sophisticated by 
men and women of fashion. 

For permission to see the pictures belonging to them or for information 
in connexion with portraits of Keppel I am indebted to the kindness of Herr 
Flatow, acting for H.R.H. Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, Viscount Falmouth, 
Lord Aberdare, Sir John Ramsden, Mr. Percy Armytage, acting for Lord 
Fitzhardinge, Professor Holmes, Mr. Algernon Graves, Mr. James Greig, and 
Mr. George Shepherd. 


This portrait of Commodore the Hon. Augustus Keppel, painted by Rey- 
nolds in 1849, is interesting in various aspects. To the student of English naval 

M 2 


heroes its unassuming virility and alertness make Keppel a very real personality. 
In this likeness he seems directly in the line of the English sailor-privateers who, 
from Drake and Hawkins, Sir John Harman and Christopher Mings to Henry 
Morgan, most vividly typified the British sailor temperament. From the 
historical point of view, moreover, this portrait is important, being one of the 
earliest likenesses of an English sailor made by an English painter. Indeed 
at the moment I can only remember Highmore as an English painter of- any 
considerable naval portrait. What the miniaturists in Elizabeth's time or 
Cooper did in this respect, I cannot say off-hand. But no good English portraits 
of the Dutch War flagmen have come down ; Lely's masterpieces were of 
Jeremy Smith and Harman ; Kneller painted admirable portraits of Fairburn, 
Benbow, and the others, and Dahl's best piece is his ' Sir Cloudesley Shovel '. 
But none are portraits of true English character. This Keppel, on the other 
hand, is conspicuously and exclusively English in temperament. 

The Reynolds student has another interest in this picture of 1749. As one 
of his earliest recognized examples it gives clear clues to his provenance. An 
earlier portrait is in the National Portrait Gallery, Dr. Johnson, seated in a chair 
with a white and blue striped cover, dating, I believe, from 1746. It is no new 
criticism that Reynolds owes something to the Exeter painter, William Gandy. 
Sir W. Armstrong has touched on his debt to a painter with whose work he 
would have been in contact from 1746 to 1749, in Devonshire. 1 These two 
portraits, the Keppel and the Johnson, are definite examples of what I may call 
Gandy esque Reynolds. In especial, they closely reproduce the Exeter artist's 
method of elaborate impasto in the flesh-painting, and his rather weak hand- 
structure. Keppel's hands may be seen unmistakably in the portraits of Ralph 
Allen and John Patch by Gandy, in the Exeter County Hospital. So, too, the 
flesh colour, warm and brownish, with a curious sort of violet-grey bloom in 
it, that characterizes these early Reynolds, is repeated in the numerous Gandys 
yet extant in Exeter. A matter of collateral interest is the little influence 
Hudson had on Reynolds's male portraits. 2 He certainly is reflected in his 
pupil's earliest women portraits, but only very slightly in the men. The portrait 
we are considering shows practically no trace of Hudson, and none of Kneller, 
who beyond question is an ingredient in certain Reynoldses, as is Dahl in 
regard to colour. Gandy is clearly reflected, in temper as well as technique. 
But the predominant characteristic is Reynolds's own temperament, his un- 
mistakable new vitality. 

1 This Gandy is sometimes confused with his father James (1619-89). William was buried in 
St. Paul's, Exeter, July 14, 1729, so that his influence on Reynolds was posthumous, unless we 
were to assume that the latter imbibed it at the age of six. It seems difficult to account for the 
apparently circumstantial tradition that Gandy actually discussed oil-technique with Reynolds. 

2 A portrait of The Earl of Radnor, exhibited in 1912 at Burlington House, attributed to 
Reynolds and referred to as showing his marked derivation from Hudson, was in fact a signed 
example of the latter. 



TURNER'S work with the pencil point is perhaps the least well known of all 
the varied forms in which his genius found expression. This is partly because he 
does not seem ever to have regarded draughtsmanship with the point of the pencil 
or chalk as an independent form of artistic expression. The pencil was his most 
constant and familiar tool, and the amount of work he did with it was immense ; 
but for some reason, which we need not inquire into at present, he treated this 
work entirely as a subordinate means, never as an end in itself as something 
to be looked at and admired entirely for its own sake. Turner knew the public 
were interested in his water-colours and oil paintings, but he does not seem to 
have thought that they would care equally for his pencil drawings. He did not 
regard them as ordinary articles ol commerce. I doubt if he sold, during the 
whole of his life, more than a dozen of his drawings of this kind, and we know 
that he consistently refused to give them away as presents to his friends and 
acquaintances. His pencil drawings were not part of his stock-in-trade ; they 
were the ' fixtures ' of his business a necessary but private part of the ritual of 

But that Turner's pencil drawings were made solely for his own private 
use does not detract either from their general interest or beauty, as works 
of art. Whether working with the brush, the needle-point, the mezzotint- 
engraver's scraper or the pencil, Turner's mastery of all the forms of pictorial 
expression was always apparent. For beauty of line, for expressiveness of 
touch, no more beautiful line-drawings of landscape and architecture have 
ever been produced than those with which Turner's sketch-books arc filled. It 
is a great piece of good luck that practically the complete series of these 
wonderful books is now in the possession of the nation, and is safely stored 
in the National Gallery. In the fullness of time, no doubt, these treasures 
will be made freely accessible to the art-loving public. At present, though 
safely stored, they have to be jealously kept from the gaze of those who 
would like to study and enjoy them. It has therefore seemed desirable that 
the Walpole Society should do something to enable the public to get some 
idea of the artistic treasures it possesses, but may not look at. 

'Keep them together' were words frequently on Turner's lips when 
speaking of his own works, and these words are especially applicable to 



the pencil drawings and sketches. It would have been an easy and pleasing 
task for the Walpole Society to have selected for reproduction a dozen or 
a score of those drawings remarkable for their beauty of workmanship or 
the interest of their subject-matter. This was the principle upon which 
Mr. Ruskin selected the drawings he chose for exhibition at Marlborough 
House in 1857, an d subsequently at the National Gallery. But though this 
method of selection has certain obvious advantages, it does not bring, the 
student into such close intimacy with Turner's habits of thought and work 
as if the drawings are studied in the order of their execution. It was therefore 
decided that the Society should endeavour to reproduce one of the sketch- 
books in its entirety, and that one of the earlier books should be selected, as 
the drawings in them are more carefully and elaborately executed than those 
in the later books. But it was found that most of these early books contained 
too many drawings to be issued in one volume of the Society's publication. 
The ' North of England ' Sketch-book, used during Turner's first visit to 
Yorkshire and the Lakes in 1797 an extremely valuable and entrancingly 
interesting book to the student of Turner's artistic development contains 
ninety-five drawings. The ' Tweed and Lakes ' Sketch-book, used on the same 
tour, contains eighty-nine drawings. The ' Hereford Court' Sketch-book, used 
in 1798, contains no less than a hundred and two striking drawings of Welsh 
scenery and antiquities. The Committee therefore decided to choose for 
publication the ' Isle of Wight ' Sketch-book of 1795. This contains only about 
forty drawings. To reproduce even this number of drawings, as near the full 
size of the originals as the size of the page of our volume would permit, was 
found to be beyond the scope of our limited resources. Six of the drawings 
have been reproduced practically the full size of the originals : twenty-one have 
been reduced to half-pages, four to quarter pages, and fourteen of the slighter 
and less important sketches have been omitted altogether. But in spite of 
the disadvantages we have had to labour under, it is hoped that the accom- 
panying set of illustrations will do something to draw attention to the immense 
value and interest of the Turner sketch-books. Many of the drawings are 
of considerable artistic and antiquarian importance, and the series shows 
us exactly how Turner worked and studied from nature at the beginning of his 
career. The drawings will also prove interesting to the student of the water- 
colours of this period. The year 1795 marks the period when Turner's style 
most closely resembled that of Girtin. When a serious effort is made to date 
Girtin's work and disengage it from Turner's, it will be a great advantage to 
have these excellent reproductions of Turner's authentic pencil-work to refer to. 
Turner was just twenty years of age when he set off on the coach from 
London with this sketch-book in his possession. The handsome appearance 
of the book it is bound in calf and has four brass clasps at its sides betrays 


something of professional ostentation. The list of ' Order'd Drawings ' written 
with a flourish on the fly-leaf also shows that the young artist had attained an 
honourable footing in his profession. There are at least ten different subjects 
commissioned by Mr. John Landseer (I take ' Brading Harbour' and 'Bembridge 
Mill ' to be different names of the same subject, and ' Godshill ' and ' Motteston 
Mill ' are twice repeated), a well-known engraver in those days, but best remem- 
bered now as the father of Sir Edwin Landseer; and two orders from Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare for views of Salisbury Cathedral. The following is a 
transcript of these notes (see Plate XXII, a) : 

' Order'd Drawings. 

Godshill | 

Colwill Bay - 10 x 7*. Mr. Landseer. 

Brading Harbour j 

Carrisbrook Castle. 10 x 7. Mr. Landseer and sketch. 

Chale Farm 

Motteston Mill 
Totnell Ba\ 

Second size. Mr. Landseer. 


Salisbury Porch ) Sir Richard Hoare, 
Front of Salisbury } size of Ely.' 

The following is written in small characters in pencil in the top right-hand 
corner of the leaf: 

' Steephill Cove. 
Bembridge Mill, &c. 
Carisb. Castle. 

Motteston Mill. Size of Chale, i.e. 8* x 6|.' 

On the inside of the front cover ' Size of Steephill, 12 x 8 ' is written in ink, 
and on the inside of the end cover the following note, also in ink, appears : 
' Church at Newport, Isle of Wight. November 2, 1800. Winchester Cross. 
Mr. Alexander.' 

The two drawings commissioned by Sir Richard Colt Hoare were probably 
the ' North Porch of Salisbury Cathedral ', exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1797, and the ' West Front of Salisbury Cathedral', exhibited in 1799. These 
two drawings, from Sir Richard's collection, were sold at Christie's in 1883. 
But, curiously enough, all trace of the drawings ordered by Mr. Landseer has 
been lost. They may not all have been carried out, but some certainly were. 
A water-colour of ' Chale Farm, Isle of Wight ', was exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1796, and among John Landseer's effects were six unfinished plates 


of views in the Isle of Wight. These plates were only carried as far as the open 
etching, but the water-colours from which they were taken must have been 
finished before the engraver could have begun his work. After John Landseer's 
death in 1852, these plates were bought up by Bohn, the publisher, who had them 
finished by another engraver, and issued with Turner's name attached to them. 
Mr. Rawlinson (Engraved Works of J. M. W. Turnci, p. 12) says that only 
four of them were engraved from Turner's drawings, the two others being 
' doubtless from drawings by Ibbetson'. But Turner was certainly responsible 
for one at least of these two subjects, as the engraving corresponds very closely 
with the drawing on page 43 of this sketch-book (see Plate XXXV, b). The 
lettering on the plate issued by Bohn is, however, incorrect. The subject is 
described as ' Shanklin Castle ', and Turner's sketch bears the name of ' Colwell 
Bay '. The four other subjects which Turner executed for Landseer are 
' Orchard Bay ', ' Freshwater Bay ', ' Alum Bay ' and ' Alum Bay and the 
Needles '. These drawings are perhaps now lying hid in some private collec- 
tion, possibly incorrectly ascribed to some other artist. There is no evidence 
in the sketch-book to connect the original of the sixth engraving a view of 
'Cowes Castle' with Turner, so it may have been engraved irom a drawing 
by Ibbetson, as Mr. Rawlinson suggests, though, so far as I know, there is no 
evidence whatever in support of such an assumption. 

Apart from their artistic value these pencil drawings of Turner have con- 
siderable biographical interest when they are ' kept together '. They form a 
sort of diary of all his travels. We see from them that Turner habitually 
planned his sketching expeditions with great care, that he knew exactly where 
he meant to go and what he had to look for, and that he generally carried out 
his programme carefully and methodically. The present book starts at 
Winchester. Having sketched the city mill, cathedral and Butter Cross, he 
went to Southampton and sketched the ruins at Netley near there, before taking 
the mail-packet to Cowes. From Newport he made his way through Godshill 
to Ventnor, and then followed the coast to the Needles. After sketching Totland 
and Colwell bays he returned to Newport, arid went west to Brading before 
taking the packet from Cowes back to Southampton and going on to Salisbury. 
The book we are now dealing with covers only the first portion of Turner's 
sketching tour of this year. From Salisbury he went to Wells, and then made 
his way to Bristol, using the New Passage to Monmouth. The remainder ol 
the summer he was busy in South Wales, bringing back something like a 
hundred beautiful pencil drawings of the interior and exterior of St. David's 
Cathedral, the ruined castles of Kidwelly and Laugharne, besides views ol 
Hampton Court, Herefordshire, the cathedrals of Gloucester and Hereford, and 
the waterfalls and picturesque coast-scenery of South Wales. But these fine 
things do not concern us on the present occasion. 


The following is a complete record of all the pages of the ' Isle of Wight ' 
Sketch-book, with references to the accompanying illustrations : 

Page i. A Mill ; probably Winchester City Mill (not reproduced). 

2. ' Winchester City Mill.' Pencil, with washes of Indian ink, sepia and 

red (Plate XXI I, b). 

3. ' West Gate, Winchester ' (Plate XXIII). 

4. 'Winchester Cross ' (Plate XXIV, a). This is one of the subjects for 

which Mr. Alexander gave a commission. The water-colour is now 
in the Manchester Whitworth Institute (Taylor Bequest). An en- 
graving of it was published by Wm. Alexander and J. Powell, on 
July 30, 1800. 

5. Slight sketch of hill-side, perhaps St. Giles' Hill (not reproduced). 

6. Slight sketch of a large cruciform church with central tower. Probably 

St. Cross (not reproduced). 




10. The Bargate, Southampton (Plate XXIV, b). 

11. Winchester Cathedral, from the Avenue. Pencil, with washes of Indian 

ink and sepia (Plate XXV). 

12. Slight sketch of a distant view of Southampton (not reproduced). 

13. Blank. 

14. (a) Winchester Cathedral and St. Cross (not reproduced). 

(b) 'Salisbury, from Old Sarum Entrenchment' (Plate XXVI, a). 

15. Blank. 

16. West Front, Salisbury Cathedral (Plate XXVI, b). 

17. Part of Exterior, Salisbury Cathedral (Plate XXVII, a). 

18. ' Poultry Cross, Sarum ' (Plate XXVII, b). 

19. ' Close Gate, Sarum ' (Plate XXVII, c). 

20. Blank. 

21. Old Building, Salisbury (Plate XX VII, d). 

22. Netley Abbey, near Southampton (Plate XXVIII, a). 

23. Another view of Netley Abbey (Plate XXVIII, b). 

24. A distant view of Carisbrook Castle (not reproduced). 

25. Carisbrook Castle, with Newport Church in distance. An evening 

effect, water-colour (Plate XXIX, a). 

253. Gate of Carisbrook Castle. Partly finished in water-colour. Exhibited 
drawing, No. 532, N. G. (Plate XXIX, b). 

26. A church, perhaps at Arreton, but I am not sure (Plate XXX, a). 

27. ' Chale Church ' (not reproduced). 


Page 28. ' Chale Farm ' (Plate XXX). The water-colour exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1796 was no doubt based on this sketch. Perhaps the 
accompanying reproduction may lead to its discovery. 

29. 'St. Lawrence, Orchard's Bay.' Partly finished in water-colour 

(Plate XXXI, a). This is one of the subjects engraved by Landseer. 

30. 'Steep Hill Cove' (Plate XXXI, b). One of the subjects com- 

missioned by Landseer, but not engraved. 

31. ' Mill Bay/ near Ventnor (Plate XXXII, a). 

32. ' Niton Church ' (not reproduced). 

33. Slight sketch of Mill with water-wheel (not reproduced). 

34. Slight sketch of Fishermen, with boats (not reproduced). 

35. Cottages on cliff. A slight beginning only (not reproduced). 

36. Appuldurcomb Park (Plate XXXII, b). One of the subjects commis- 

sioned by Landseer, but not engraved. 

37. Godshill Church (Plate XXXIII, a). Commissioned by Landseer, 

but not engraved. 

38. ' Mottestone Mill' (Plate XXXIII, b). Commissioned by Landseer, 

but not engraved. 

39. Freshwater Bay. Distance and middle distance painted in water-colour 

(Plate XXXIV). A most beautiful drawing, showing Wilson's 
influence in the colour scheme. One of Turner's earliest studies of 
the sea. Commissioned and engraved by Landseer. 

40. Commencement of sketch of clouds, distant cliffs, &c. (not reproduced). 

41. Alum Bay. Water-colour (Plate XXXV, a). 

42. 'Totland Bay/ with Alum Bay and the Needles in the distance (Plate 

XXXVI). Engraved by Landseer, and published by Bohn under 
the title 'Alum Bay and the Needles'. 

43. ' Colwell Bay.' Sky and water left blank, the remainder of drawing 

carefully worked in water-colour (Plate XXXV, b). The water-colour 
based on this sketch was engraved by Landseer, and published by 
Bohn with the erroneous title of ' Shanklin Castle '. 

44. 'Newport/ with Carisbrook Castle in distance (Plate XXXVII). It 

is impossible to see Carisbrook from the spot where the river and 
town were sketched. But if one walks up the bank towards 
the churchyard on to higher ground, the castle becomes visible. 
This drawing is a good instance of the care with which Turner 
composed even his sketches from nature. 

45. Blank. 

46. Commencement of sketch of gable only (not reproduced). 
47- The Market Place, Newport (not reproduced). 

47a- Newport Church. Water-colour (Plate XXXVIII, a). This water- 


colour is based on the sketch of the same subject on the following 
page. It is evidently connected with the commission for a drawing 
of the ' Church at Newport ', entered on the inside of the end 
Page 48. ' Newport Church ' (Plate XXX VI II, b). 

49. ' Nunwell and Brading from Bembridgc Mill.' Part of mill and the 
distance exquisitely finished in water-colour (Plate XXXIX). 

[All the drawings are in pencil, unless otherwise described. The descriptions 
printed in inverted commas are taken from Turner's own inscriptions on the 
drawings. The size of the pages of the sketch-book is iol x 8 inches. The 
water-mark of the paper is ' E. and P. 1794 '. The book is labelled on the back 
in Turner's writing, '95. Isle of Wight.'] 

Plate XXII. 















Plate XXIII. 



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(a). Page 25. Carisbrook Castle, with Newport Church in distance. 

Water colour. 

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(a). Page 29. ''St. Lawrence, Orchard's Bay". Partly finished in water colour. 

(b). Paee 30. " Steep Hill Cove ' 

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Plate xxxv. 

'a). Page 41. Alum Hay. Water colour. 


(b). Page 43. "Colwell Bay". Water colour. 


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Walpole Society, Lo 
The volume of th 
Walpole Society